SNP, SDP, LibDem, Enlightenment Liberalisation is still Globalisation not Internationalism, Same old Shit Different bunch of Elitists.

Racism Poisons the Entire Brexit Debate 463

It appears sadly impossible not to comment on Brexit at the moment; the astonishing scale of the government defeat in Parliament yesterday and the appalling self-serving behaviour of politicians on all sides compels attention.The first and most obvious point is this; had Theresa May any honour, she would simply resign after her major political objective was rebuffed so dramatically by the legislature. But honour appears to be entirely out of fashion, so I shall not refer to it again today.
Roger G Lewis
But it is worse than that. Many at the heart of what I might call “Old Labour” still harbour the dark thoughts that led in my youth to support from many trade union members for the views of Enoch Powell – the idea that immigrants depress wages and damage the working class. Unfortunately both Jeremy Corbyn and John MacDonnell, for both of whom I have much respect in general, still harbour this dinosaur opinion.In July, Jeremy Corbyn said that immigration “would be a managed thing on the basis of the skills required… What there wouldn’t be is whole-scale importation of underpaid workers from central Europe in order to destroy conditions, particularly in the construction industries.”
Illegal People: How Globalization Creates Migration and Criminalizes Immigrants
For two decades David Bacon has documented the connections between labor, migration, and the global economy. In Illegal People he explains why our national policy produces even more displacement, migration, immigration raids, and an increasingly divided and polarized society. Arguing for a sea change in how we think, debate, and legislate about and around immigration, Bacon promotes a human rights perspective in a globalized world.
Study on Nafta after 20 years.
  • Roger G Lewis
    Decreased Wages, Increased Inequality………….……………………………………………….…….10
    Wages Decline Due to NAFTA……………………………………………………………………………………10
    U.S. Economic Inequality Reaches New Extremes………………………………………………………………..11
    Wage Losses Outweigh Cheaper Prices under NAFTA-style Trade Pacts……………………………………….11
    Devastation of U.S. Manufacturing Erodes the Tax Base that Supports U.S. Schools, Hospitals….……………12

Don’t be fooled again by the latest trade deal, the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP). Help stop our downward economic spiral and loss of national sovereignty by watching this video, then sharing with others. Blog Moved Here.

The Giant Sucking Sound , A Sharp intake of Breath, A duel to the death The New United States Republic 1776-2016.

LAST LICKS performs The Who’s classic song, Won’t Get Fooled Again, from Who’s Next at Trinity On Main on 4/16/11.

LAST LICKS is Bruce MacPherson, Joe Santucci, Remo Capello, Gray Fowler, and Bill Wilson


Learn more about TTP, TTIP, CETA, ISDS

Will We Be Fooled Again? Stop the TPP!
issue, and then take action at…

NAFTA AT 20 Years Report

Click to access NAFTA-at-20.pdf

Sucking Sound Attribution.
Attribution 3.0

Perot Infomercials from 1992
The Economy

Balancing the budget

Second Presidential Debate from 1992

Nafta Debate 1993 Gore/Perot


Current enlargement agenda[edit]

Candidates by the order of EU integration progress:

 Member states
 Candidates negotiating membership
 Potential candidates which have submitted a membership application
 Potential candidates which have not submitted a membership application

Article 49 of the Maastricht Treaty (as amended) says that any European state that respects the “principles of liberty, democracy, respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, and the rule of law”, may apply to join the Union. The Copenhagen European Council set out the conditions for EU membership in June 1993 in the so-called Copenhagen criteria (see Criteria above for details). The Western Balkan states had to sign Stabilisation and Association Agreements (SAAs) before applying for membership.

Turkey applied for membership in 1987. The Western Balkans have been prioritised for membership since emerging from war during the breakup of YugoslaviaAlbaniaMacedonia,[24] MontenegroSerbia, and Turkey are all recognized as official candidates, and the latter three are undergoing membership talks.[65] Bosnia and Herzegovina and Kosovo*[66] are recognized as potential candidates for membership by the EU.[65] Bosnia has submitted an application for EU membership, while Bosnia and Kosovo have an SAA with the EU.

In July 2014, President of the European Commission Jean-Claude Juncker announced that the EU has no plans to expand in the next five years.[67] Juncker has described Serbia and Montenegro as front-runner candidates, and projected that they would join by 2025.[68][69]

On 6 February 2018, the European Commission published its expansion plan,[70] which covers the six Western Balkan countries. The plan envisages that all six applicants could achieve accession as members of the European Union after 2025. In May 2018, Bulgaria—holding the rotating presidency of the Council of the European Union—hosted a summit on the Western Balkans, which aimed to facilitate accession by the six, including enhanced regional security cooperation and regional connectivity.[71]

It was noteworthy that the Summit referred to ‘partners’ rather than states: this reflects the issue that Kosovo is only partially recognised as a state.[72] States that did not, in 2018, recognise Kosovo include fellow Western Balkan applicant, Serbia, and other EU members: SpainSlovakiaCyprusRomania, and Greece. The European Commission is sensitive to the issue which was addressed in a speech by the EU’s High Representative/Vice-President Federica Mogherini at the European Parliament Plenary Session on the Western Balkan Strategy: ” shared, unequivocal, concrete perspective for European Union integration for each and every one of the six partners. Each at its own pace, with its own specificities and under different conditions, but the direction is clear and is one “[73].

Cancelled enlargements[edit]

Not all enlargement negotiations have ended with the accession of a new member state. Norway completed membership negotiations twice, in 1972 and 1994, but both times membership was rejected in a referendum. Switzerland applied for membership in May 1992 but subsequently froze its application,[74][75] and formally withdrew it in 2016.[76][77] Iceland lodged its application following an economic collapse in 2008, but froze accession negotiations in 2013. In 2017, Iceland’s newly elected government announced that it may seek to begin talks with the EU on possible future membership once again,[78] but this did not happen as the government only survived for eight months. New elections were called in October 2017, leading to a new left–right coalition government in November 2017. Following the elections, all the parties of the governing coalition oppose EU membership, along with two of the opposition parties, summing up to at least two-thirds of the MPs. Additionally, for more than eight years every single opinion poll published in Iceland has had a solid majority against joining the EU.[79]


The Giant Sucking Sound , A Sharp intake of Breath, A duel to the death. The New United States Republic 1776-2016.
In 1729 Benjamin Franklin wrote a pamphlet ´´A modest Enquiry into the nature and the necessity of a paper Currency.”
a modest enquiry,
”There is no Science, the Study of which is more useful and commendable than the Knowledge of the true Interest of one’s Country; and perhaps there is no Kind of Learning more abstruse and intricate, more difficult to acquire in any Degree of Perfection than This, and therefore none more generally neglected. Hence it is, that we every Day find Men in Conversation contending warmly on some Point in Politicks, which, altho’ it may nearly concern them both, neither of them understand any more than they do each other.
Thus much by way of Apology for this present Enquiry into the Nature and Necessity of a Paper Currency. And if any Thing I shall say, may be a Means of fixing a Subject that is now the chief Concern of my Countrymen, in a clearer Light, I shall have the Satisfaction of thinking my Time and Pains well employed.
To proceed, then,
There is a certain proportionate Quantity of Money requisite to carry on the Trade of a Country freely and currently; More than which would be of no Advantage in Trade, and Less, if much less, exceedingly detrimental to it.
This leads us to the following general Considerations.”

I made this video.

Giant Sucking Sound, Dont Get fooled again. #MAGA

A strong theme emerges from the 1928, the 1960 and the 1992 elections as they do form the stages of the US republic along with the 3 catastrophic US Wars. Governments rule by consent and ignore the plight of the people at their peril. Now is one of those times.


    • 17 May 2017
Theresa MayImage copyrightAFP
Theresa May has said she wants the Conservative party to be the “voice of ordinary working people once again”. That has prompted some to say she’s a “Red Tory”. But what does that tag mean and is it true?

Red Tory

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Red Tory is an adherent of a centre-right or paternalistic-conservative political philosophy derived from the Tory tradition, predominantly in Canada, but also in the United Kingdom. This philosophy tends to favour communitarian social policies, while maintaining a degree of fiscal discipline and a respect of social and political order. It is contrasted with “Blue Tory” or “High Tory“. Some Red Tories view themselves as small-c conservatives.

In Canada, Red Toryism is found in provincial and federal Conservative political parties. The history of Red Toryism marks differences in the development of the political cultures of Canada and the United StatesCanadian conservatism and American conservatism have been different from each other in fundamental ways, including their stances on social issues and the role of government in society.[1]

The adjective “red” refers to the economically left-leaning nature of Red Toryism in comparison with Blue Toryism, since socialist and other leftist parties have traditionally used the colour red. In Canada today, however, red is commonly associated with the centrist Liberal Party. The term reflects the broad ideological range traditionally found within conservatism in Canada.



“a number of your other core beliefs do make it into this manifesto

don’t think about nationalizing the Royal Mail for example or the railways or energy companies or water companies

why not banks

some of our banks are

publicly owned as it is actually

you said you have always believed that banks should be publicly owned” ?


There are Four Generally Accepted Functions of Money.
Money Should Be a Unit Of Account,
Money Should Be a Means of Exchange
Money Should Be a Store of Value
Money Should Be a Measure of Value.
Most of the confusions of Money and its useful functions relates to confusing money with Wealth.
Bear this statement in Mind in the following.





´Not Waving But Drowning´.
There are two things that the European Elites, in the Big Player countries at least, simply do not get. They are; Democratic Accountability and the importance of Economic Prosperity. If” it´s the economy stupid,” that comes first and people vote with their pocketbooks, there is then an option to dispense with one of these two mystery conceptions. Which one? of course, that would be Democracy.

The point which is quite clearly lost on the EU top Brass and their fundamental misunderstanding is this. To bake Austerity into the cake and to flout any pretence of democracy will not wash and has not been washing with people who are, or, at least believe themselves to be, free.What makes this even more alarming and frankly plain stupid is that austerity is a political choice and not a Law of Nature. At this stage in the process where Democracy and Prosperity have been taken off the table and replaced with Authoritarian Austerity. We as Europeans and Citizens of our own Nations, Countries or communities can now look at both Democracy and prosperity and by understanding things better than the ´´ Experts, ´´ we will discover that we can demand and expect both Democracy and Prosperity.


This is a list of referendums related to the European Union, or its predecessors, the European Communities. Since 1972, a total of 48 referendums have been held by EU member states, candidate states, and their territories, with several additional referendums held in countries outside of the EU. The referendums have been held most commonly on the subject of whether to become a member of European Union as part of the accession process, although the EU does not require any candidate country to hold a referendum to approve membership or as part of treaty ratification. Other EU-related referendums have been held on the adoption of the euro and on participation in other EU-related policies.
The United Kingdom is the only EU member state to have held referendums on the issue of continued membership of the European Union and its antecedent organisation, the European Communities. In the first referendum in 1975, continued membership of what was then the European Communities (which included the European Economic Community, often referred to as the Common Market in the UK)[nb 1] was approved by 67.2% of voters, while in its second referendum in 2016 voters voted by 51.9% to leave the European Union.[nb 2]
Greenland, an autonomous territory of Denmark, voted to leave the EEC in a referendum in 1982 by 53% of voters.




Several member states used or intended to use referendums to ratify the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe (TCE).


This is well worth a read. In Rugby football there is a style of play when one falls behind, it´s called ´´catch up´´ Rugby and is very risky. It seems to me that Catch up democracy is what the EU and the Washington Consensus Establishment is currently engaged in.
With their rush to catch up a comedy of errors ensues as they lose all discipline and considered reason.
Reading a lot on the Project Syndicate and ECFR sites will confirm the default position of the Establöishment and its technocrats that it is the broad sweep of public opinion that is wrong.
Professor Bruce Charlton´s Thought prison of PC is an excellent filter through which to sieve the meaning of the establishment´s words to discern their meaning and importantly in their confusion, their emotion.
´´The moral universe of PC subsists on two distinct realities – good causes and good intentions, but never the twain can stay stuck-together.

(Note the lack of reference to good outcomes. Being wholly abstract, PC is indifferent to outcomes. ‘Outcomes’ are regarded as having no autonomous reality, but are merely seen as part of abstract theory.)´´

A political tsunami is on the horizon driven by more referenda – meet the insurgent parties calling for them.


Meet the Fuggers or, its the Money Power stupid.

Brexit, The Euro and clueless Elites.

The Eastern Roman Empire under Justinian saw the seeds of its final fall to The Ottomans when Abd El Melik started paying tribute in Gold coinage under his own Political Branding you might say.

With all the talk of Brexit being the removal of a final obstacle to the deeper federation of a European State transcending tiresome nationalism, perhaps a little review of History, particularly Monetary history, might not be such a bad thing.

In the review of European competences carried out as a consultation by the foreign office regarding Brexit and or reform requirements of the Eu, two of the papers need to be considered in the context of the Money power argument.

The first paper considered is the Subsidiarity and proportionality aspects of the Lisbon treaty and the competences of the EU institutions vis National and regional democratic institutions. This is a trade-off between Centralised Efficiency and Local democracy.
The second trade-off is the mutually exclusive realities of either Democracy or Private Credit creation, both again are not possible you can have one or the other.

EU enlargement and The monetary union had already become a bridge too far for many British Voters by the time of the Maastricht treaty. The  Lisbon was a bridge too far. to mix a metaphor, The straw that broke the camels back. The Irish The Danes, The Swedes, The Dutch pretty much most populations consulted have not given the EU zealots the right answer the first time around and the EU elite simply refused to see the point and have now simply adopted the expediency of not asking.

Two pieces of folk wisdom spring to mind.



Richard Bach.

Back to NAFTA, another Neo-Liberal enlargement


Crisis and Neoliberal Capitalism


Part I: The Financial Crisis and the Real Economy

It is impossible to predict the course of the financial crisis. The effects of the crisis on the real economy could be very large, especially if it engulfs more and more of the financial sector. But even if the financial crisis is contained, the bursting of the housing bubble—which began in 2007 and is bound to continue for some time—will have a powerful downward impact on the economy.

The obvious conclusion is that the financial sector cannot be operated on a profit-and-loss basis. Instead, it should become part of the public sector, operated to serve the public interest. If banks, which are granted the power to create our money supply, and whose credit is essential to the welfare of the entire public, were made public institutions, then public policy aims could guide their actions. They could be directed to stay away from speculative activities and instead make loans for socially valuable purposes. This would include steering credit into renewable energy technologies, fuel-efficient vehicles, low cost housing, and other good purposes. An advantage of public ownership of the banks over another cycle of government regulation of private banks is that reregulated private banks would simply press for the elimination of the regulations—as they did successfully starting in the early 1980s.

The developing financial and economic crises have exposed the high-flying financial operators for what they always were—thieves who got rich without doing anything productive. This has also exposed their fallacious free-market ideology. This is a promising time to build popular movements that can fight for progressive changes in our economy.

David Kotz teaches economics at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst. He is co-editor of Understanding Contemporary Capitalism: Social Structure of Accumulation Theory for the Twenty-First Century, forthcoming from Cambridge University Press.



An old Etonian Toff
was often noted to scoff
Whilst Brosiering His dame
Economical actualité is the name of the game
I’ll tax the upper Crust off your pasty
now your all Fagging for me
I always preferred Cheshire Porky Pies
In Cuisine and in Deed you see.
Clark left Parliament in 1992 following Margaret Thatcher’s fall from power. His admission during the Matrix Churchill trial that he had been “economical with the actualité ” in answer to parliamentary questions about what he knew with regard to arms export licences to Iraq, caused the collapse of the trial and the establishment of the Scott Inquiry, which helped undermine John Major‘s government.[31]
Russell Brand’s The Emperor’s New Clothes reviewed: ‘uncomfortable viewing’

Queen’s Brian May went on to ask what he should do tomorrow when he wakes up to help the cause. ‘It’s a long term strategy of the re-centralisation of the power under the co-ordination of vital institutions and vital services fully autonomous collectives that collaborate to preserve the rights of the individual and the rights to pursue spiritually whatever direction we want to with the prioritisation of the ecological preservation of the planet,’ was Brand’s confusing reply.

Judging by Brand’s answer, he is most effective with his views when edited. Watch the film, but if it leaves you looking for a left-wing champion to lead the revolution, you may want to look to Ed.

The Emperors New Clothes Full Stream (non HD)

According to Studio Canal who distribute the film

Fairytale, allegorical1. Collective ignorance of an obvious fact, or deception, despite undeniable evidence.
World-famous British comedian and activist Russell Brand joins forces with acclaimed director Michael Winterbottom on a polemical documentary about the financial crisis and gross inequality we currently face. Starting with the genesis of today’s economic policies, with the arrival of Milton Friedman’s school of thought in Reagan’s leadership and Thatcher’s UK, the film explores how these policies have come to dominate the western world. The rich have got richer; where a CEO of a major British company used to earn 10 times the average wage of his workers, now they earn 200 times. According to Oxfam, the richest 80 people in the world own as much as the poorest 3.5 billion. It would now take 300 years for the average cleaner, cleaning the offices of his senior boss, to earn the same salary taken home by the same boss last year.
Milton Friedman once said that every crisis was an opportunity. The financial crisis of 2008 should have been a chance to reform the system for the benefit of everyone. But instead, austerity for everyone throughout Britain and Europe was the price to be paid for supporting the financial sector, with £131 billion spent by UK tax payers to keep the financial system afloat, while $30 trillion in support and subsidies went to Wall Street in the US.
Using a mixture of documentary, interviews, archive footage and comedy, Russell Brand takes us from his hometown Grays in Essex, to the heart of London ‘City’ and on to the Big Apple. This daring film will shake up the world by revealing the bewildering truth about how the people at the bottom are paying for the luxuries of those at the top.
Things can change…things do change.

With the Snap June 8th General Election we Voters are getting rather practised at listening to the familiar narratives. There has been an unbroken onslaught since the 2010 election and in each what is singularly clear is that none of the political narratives has adequately dealt with the 2008 Crisis and subsequent Austerity fix, which all political parties seemingly have Bought into. Certainly, the media has sold those Austerity lies enthusiastically. Brands film the emperor’s new clothes did not get a general Cinema release and is still hard to find online to stream, the link on the trailer of the distributors youtube channel does not work, as with many accurate and useful documentaries the material has been memory holed, hiding in plain site as any needle in any haystack is not hidden from view  just difficult to find, you understand.

Brexit is a Mania peculiar to a narrow band of Europhile apparatchiks and an assorted bunch of faux sophisticates that profess a preference for coffee over tea at breakfast and who prefer they say a Continental Breakfast to a Full English. As any true gastronome would admit no one prefers a continental breakfast over a ´´full English´´, just as no vegetarian would remain morally superior on the matter of truth-telling, by their own lights, if they denied the alluring and mouth watering delicacy of the smell of bacon frying in butter.

Brexit is a peculiar lens to view Globalism through, Brexit in Prime Minister Mays Ideology or Ultra Neo-Liberal Ideology is rather a parochial regional quarrel. Globalism based upon Petro/Carbon Dollar debt based Hegemony would naturally support Brexit as it damages the EURO currency unit and Strengthens the Stirling Dollar or ´´Cable´´Axis. The Global Oligarchy must be centred on the United States and is founded in doctrines of American Exceptionalism, there you see Trump and his faction 0f the Oligarchy which arguably includes Murdoch or the Faction containing Murdoch is Aligned to the Trump faction, or if you prefer has captured or subverted Trump and the #MAGA movement to its own ends. All controls do now seem set and committed to the infamous Project for a new American Century and spelt out in that General wesley Clarke Video on Democracy Now.

I did a Blog with some Geo-Economics analysis linking to some very interesting papers and articles regarding SDR´s, the World Bank and the Balance of Economic Power, as exercised through the accounting of trade balances.
It is a complex picture, what one needs to look for if one wants democracy and common prosperity rather than permanent war as the health of the Globalist State one must look at those who are advocating the Praxis of subsidiarity and not merely paying lip service to it.

Subsidiarity is the praxis of Democracy and Liberal Democracy as preached by Neo-Liberalism is a veneer applied to a deep-seated Tyranny of the very Rich over the poor and growing Precariat.
Centralised Tyranny with absolutely corrupted power or, Decentralised Subsidiarity devolved and demurring to communities.

Subsidiarity blogs on EU

If you click the link or search subsidiarity in the search bar at the top of the page you will find references to Subsidiarity on this blog all of them in a democratic context as to the Brexit debate in some shape or form.

To Leadership elections we will now meander
Sauce for the Goose, surely Sauce for the Gander.
To Complain of a Mandate of 24
having secured one of your own, 32.55, little more.
Whilst arguing the weak mandate of 37.5 for Brexit
When in a hole lay down your spade, and look for the Exit.
Comparing 46.7 for Union & 28.68 for First past the post,
who’s to say which mandate is most?
43.55 to stay in 75 & 32.76 in 72, blessed as sufficient,
it seems quite absurd, less than efficient?
@2.24mins ” a political system that delivers government on the basis of just based upon just 24% of the eligible vote, clearly does not give us that.´´
On Green Leadership.
37% turnout
41 690 active eligible voters
32.55% mandate?for Lucas/Bartley
Incumbents advantage.? fully employed for the co-leaders, through to the actual online ballot presentation.
The leadership election figures tell a similar story, was it voter suppression? probably not, certainly though it was contributory negligence on the part of Lucas/Bartley and the GP machinery.
Daniel Lee Why are you joining Labour Party members to mock our leadership just because your candidate didn’t win?

Book of Enoch Subsidiarity and Roman Orthodox church schism.It’s all About Subsidiarity and Minting the Money at the end of the Day.


Whose Rules Whos Money? The House Always Wins.
Papal supremacy and Pentarchy[edit]
Further information: Pentarchy
The primary causes of the schism were disputes over conflicting claims of jurisdiction, in particular over papal authority—Pope Leo IX claimed he held authority over the four Eastern patriarchs— and over the insertion of the Filioque clause into the Nicene Creed by the Western patriarch in 1014.[103] Eastern Orthodox today state that Council of Chalcedon canon 28 explicitly proclaimed the equality of the Bishops of Rome and Constantinople and that it established the highest court of ecclesiastical appeal in Constantinople.[104] Council of Ephesus canon 7 declared:
It is unlawful for any man to bring forward, or to write, or to compose a different (ἑτέραν) Faith as a rival to that established by the holy Fathers assembled with the Holy Ghost in Nicæa. But those who shall dare to compose a different faith, or to introduce or offer it to persons desiring to turn to the acknowledgment of the truth, whether from Heathenism or from Judaism, or from any heresy whatsoever, shall be deposed, if they be bishops or clergymen; bishops from the episcopate and clergymen from the clergy; and if they be laymen, they shall be anathematized[105]
Eastern Orthodox today state that this canon of the Council of Ephesus explicitly prohibited modification of the Nicene Creed drawn up by the first Ecumenical Council in 325, the wording of which, it is claimed, but not the substance, had been modified by the second Ecumenical Council, making additions such as “who proceeds from the Father”.
Eastern Orthodox argue that First Council of Ephesus canon 7 explicitly prohibited modification of the Nicene Creed by any man (not by ecumenical church council) drawn up by the first Ecumenical Council in 325.[106] In reality, the Council made no exception for an ecumenical council or any other body of bishops,[107] and the Greeks participating in the Council of Florence emphatically denied that even an ecumenical council had the power to add anything to the creed.[108] The creed quoted in the Acts of the Council of Ephesus of 431 (the third ecumenical council) is that of the first ecumenical council, that of Nicaea (325), without the modifications that the second ecumenical council, held in Constantinople in 381, is understood to have made to it, such as the addition of “who proceeds from the Father”.[109][110] Eastern Orthodox theologians state this change of the wording of the churches’ original creed, was done to address various teachings outside of the church in specific the Macedonius I of Constantinople teaching which the council claimed was a distortion of the church’s teaching on the Holy Spirit. This was not a change of the orthodoxy of the churches’ original creed.[111] Thus the word ἑτέραν in the seventh canon of the later Council of Ephesus is understood as meaning “different” or “contradictory” and not “another” in the sense of mere explanatory additions to the already existing creed.[108] Some scholars hold that the additions attributed to the First Council of Constantinople were adopted only with the 451 Council of Chalcedon, 20 years after that of Ephesus,[112][113] and even that the Council of Ephesus, in which Alexandrian influence was dominant, was by this canon excluding the Constantinopolitan Creed, which eventually annexed the name and fame of the creed adopted at Nicaea.[114]
Pentarchy (from the Greek Πενταρχίαpentarchía, from πέντε pénte, “five”, and ἄρχειν archein, “to rule”) is a model historically championed in Eastern Christianity as a model of church relations and administration as expressed by the laws of Emperor Justinian I of the Byzantine Empire. In the model, the Christian church is governed by the heads (patriarchs) of the five major episcopal sees of the Roman EmpireRomeConstantinopleAlexandriaAntioch, and Jerusalem.[2]
The idea came about because of the political and ecclesiastical prominence of these five sees, but the concept of their universal and exclusive authority was firmly tied to the administrative structure of the Roman Empire. The pentarchy was first tangibly expressed in the laws of Emperor Justinian I (527–565), particularly in Novella 131. The Quinisext Council of 692 gave it formal recognition and ranked the sees in order of preeminence. Especially following Quinisext, the pentarchy was at least philosophically accepted in Eastern Christianity, but generally not in the West, which rejected the Council, and the concept of the pentarchy.[3]
The greater authority of these sees in relation to others was tied to their political and ecclesiastical prominence; all were located in important cities and regions of the Roman Empire and were important centers of the Christian Church. Rome, Alexandria and Antioch were prominent from the time of early Christianity, while Constantinople came to the fore upon becoming the imperial residence in the 4th century. Thereafter it was consistently ranked just after Rome. Jerusalem received a ceremonial place due to the city’s importance in the early days of Christianity. Justinian and the Quinisext Council excluded from their pentarchical arrangement churches outside the empire, such as the then-flourishing Church of the East in Sassanid Persia, which they saw as heretical. Within the empire they recognized only the Chalcedonian (or Melchite) incumbents, regarding as illegitimate the non-Chalcedonian claimants of Alexandria and Antioch.
Infighting among the sees, and particularly the rivalry between Rome (which considered itself preeminent over all the church) and Constantinople (which came to hold sway over the other Eastern sees and which saw itself as equal to Rome, with Rome “first among equals“), prevented the pentarchy from ever becoming a functioning administrative reality. The Islamic conquests of Alexandria, Jerusalem, and Antioch in the 7th century left Constantinople the only practical authority in the East, and afterward the concept of a “pentarchy” retained little more than symbolic significance.
Tensions between East and West, which culminated in the East–West Schism, and the rise of powerful, largely independent metropolitan sees and patriarchates outside the Byzantine Empire in BulgariaSerbia, and Russia, eroded the importance of the old imperial sees. Today, only the sees of Rome and Constantinople still hold considerable authority over a Christian church, the first being the head of the Roman Catholic Church and the second having symbolic hegemony over the Orthodox Church.


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Author: rogerglewis Looking for a Job either in Sweden or UK. Freelance, startups, will turń my hand to anything.