So very little has changed since 2016, I think the prelim or predicate in the article by Yannis nails the reasons why.” The process any member state must follow to exit the EU is governed by Article 50 of the bloc’s Lisbon Treaty, which, ironically, was authored by a British diplomat keen to deter exits from the EU. ”
The EU has hardened its stance on Federalism of a very curious sort More Brussels and less Europe federalism with an ECB and Commission that simply does not allow subsidiarity in questions of monetary policy which is causing the French and Italian problems going on at the moment for which Mr Macron and Mssrs Tusk and Junker seem so blissfully in denial of. Karl Bildt was prescient in these pages here https://www.project-syndicate.org/commentary/remaking-post-brexit-european-union-by-carl-bildt-2016-07# on these questions more generally.
The importance of Subsidiarity and the competencies of the commission are highlighted in this blog.
Another problem is the question of EU military unification a process which has continued under the radar of the Brexit Fuss. https://twitter.com/PMotels/status/1085107914216480768
So its as we were. Democracy Unfolded Emergent Reality of Brexit. (a poem)