Plasma Cosmology, Big Bang, Hannes Alfven. Nobel Prize Winner 1970. The Electric Universe.

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I wish to thank you very much for your
00:15
kind introduction
00:18
it is a great pleasure to be here and to
00:24
listen to so many interesting lectures
00:28
and especially I am glad to note that
00:33
there are so many physicists who invade
00:37
other fields of science we have your
00:41
start today a couple of excellent
00:44
lectures about biology and the
00:49
physicists have made all presented all
00:55
sorts of excuses for going I think that
01:00
they do not need any excuse for this but
01:05
I should like to try to follow the same
01:09
approach namely to try to go into a
01:17
field where I am outsider and this means
01:26
that I would like to present the views
01:29
of a plasma physicist on cosmology and
01:35
astrophysics problems in general as an
01:40
excuse for doing so I should perhaps
01:44
mention that everybody everybody knows
01:48
that 99.999999%
01:53
of the universe consists of a magnetized
01:56
plasma and therefore it may be allowed
02:01
for plasma physicist to present his
02:04
views
02:07
and the we have listened to wonderful
02:13
lectures about cosmology and it has been
02:19
stated here the general agreed fact that
02:25
the Big Bang cosmology is the cosmology
02:30
which explains everything
02:33
and I am of course very impressed by
02:39
this cosmology it is based on the
02:42
general theory of relativity and in the
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year when the hundred anniversary of
02:50
Einstein is celebrated I need not I need
02:56
no stress to you how wonderful our
02:59
beautiful the general theory of general
03:03
relativity is and when you listen to
03:07
this presentation of a professor Dirac
03:10
on his portion of the general of the Big
03:16
Bang Theory you are also very impressed
03:20
of course the general feeling is that it
03:25
is a beautiful theory which explains the
03:30
whole evolution of the universe from the
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Big Bang the original when all matter
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was we have now was concentrated in one
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point upon singular point there are of
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course a number of difficulties which is
03:52
it is a little which there are number of
03:59
things I it is a little difficult to
04:02
understand namely that the whole world
04:05
which we see Linda on bodensee and the
04:08
whole earth and
04:10
the planets and the Sun and the galaxies
04:13
and all that once was once condensed
04:17
into a very small volume as small as
04:20
this or as small as this or even still
04:23
smaller because the singular point is
04:26
very very small and then in a better I
04:30
take the authority Einstein and
04:34
professor Dirac that it must have been
04:37
so and furthermore you hear the detailed
04:43
description of what happened during the
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first three minutes after the Big Bang
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and that is described as you know in
04:55
detail you are a little surprised to
04:58
find that the accurate dating of this is
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not so well-known professor Dirac said
05:07
that some people say that it was ten
05:10
billion years ago and other 80 18
05:13
billion years ago and I think these
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states the states the general situation
05:20
that is large uncertainties in certain
05:22
respects but of course not about what
05:25
happened during the first three minutes
05:28
but when these and then of course you
05:32
asked yourself what happened before
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these three minutes and then I haven’t
05:39
got any answer yet
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what happened before well this has no
05:44
meaning because nothing exists is there
05:48
and how did all this come into into
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being there are some people who say that
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this proves the existence of God because
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it was must have been God created all
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this at a certain movement and this
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means that we mix science and theology
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we come into the borderline there and
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the
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is the thing which perhaps is somewhat
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dangerous but as I said the most the
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strongest impression is the wonderful
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beauty of the whole theory
06:27
it explains everything however beauty
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beauty is sometimes dangerous also in
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science and especially in cosmology if
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we look at the history of science there
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has been other cosmologies which have
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been wonderfully beautiful take the six
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take creation it wasn’t that everyone
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isn’t that a wonderful cosmology it it
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and still it is in spite of its beauty
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it it isn’t believed very much at least
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not in the scientific community and take
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the wonderful to the main system which
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was generally accepted 2,000 years or so
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with the harmony of the spheres and
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crystal spheres revolving that was also
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very beautiful but still there are very
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few people who believe in it except of
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course those who believe in astrology
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and that is perhaps more and those who
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believe in science in yeah in astronomy
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but that is that these are outside extra
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morals they are not do not belong to the
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scientific community but I think that
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the the reason why these very beautiful
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cosmologists are not are not accepted
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anymore is that they are not
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reconcilable with observations because
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science is after all
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an empirical – to some extent empirical
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we have wonderful theories of which we
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have heard so much but there is also
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empirical evidence and how does that
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agree with the the theories in this
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respect we have heard that are
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convincing proofs for the Big Bang
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cosmology and we have heard that in some
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cases there is expected to be a
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convincing truth of it in a few months
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but let us see a little how we have all
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this this how much short extent the
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observations support the Big Bang I
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think that the general impression is
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that all really good observations
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support Big Bang and all bad
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observations contradict it but what is
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the definition of a good observation it
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is an observation which confirms the Big
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Bang and and
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the definition of a bulb observation and
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an interesting observation is an
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observation which please big bang into
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some difficulties we have heard about
09:47
these wonderful models it is the
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homogeneous model which is the basis for
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the Big Bang is derived from the general
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theory of relativity
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and so the first question is is really
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the universe a uniform is it isotropic
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if you go out in the night and look at
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the Stars you don’t you you see
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something which is not at all uniform
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can I have the first slide but that is
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only a local and normally it is only
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something which happens here in our
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close neighborhood and if you go up and
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have a look if you have a look on the
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galaxy our galaxy this does not either
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give you an impression of a uniform
10:50
distribution of matter but this is a
10:54
game a local and normally if we go out
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further we should according to the
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theory to the be able to apply a uniform
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homogeneous theory that means that such
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islands should be distributed uniformly
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in space no it was not because the
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galaxies are lumped together in in in
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groups of galaxies and these are lumped
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together in in clusters of galaxies and
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the clusters of galaxies are not either
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uniformly distributed
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they are lumped together in super trust
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us and that is as far as our information
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goes because if we go to still larger
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size we don’t know anything with
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certainty from observations of this kind
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can I have the projector the projector
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on here this is a diagram by tubercular
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which gives the experimental the
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observational results correlation
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between the maximum density and the
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radius of a sphere and you see here if
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you have these represent galaxies and
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the average density in in them is
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something like two ten to the minus
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twenty three these are groups of
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galaxies and and clusters of galaxies
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and this is the last largest unit you
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can measure that is a super super
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cluster of superclusters of galaxies
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they come down here and you see this
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does this means that we have rather a
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hierarchy of lower and lower densities
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when we go out to very large regions
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here we are out on close to ten to
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twenty six centimetres and the Hubble
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radius the radius of the universe is
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called 10 to the 28th so we are have
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here still a couple of orders of
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magnitude to go and about this region we
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don’t know anything from galactic
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observations how uniform it is it is
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quite possible that off from here
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further out we have a uniform density
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that is about ten to the minus twenty
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nine which i think is the figure which
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professor Dirac voted however if you
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take you can also without being in
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disagreement with any of seven
13:54
in fact continued the extrapolation here
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and that brings you down to 10 to the
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minus 34 or 32 at this distance which is
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3 or 4 autism or magnitude below this
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value so we obviously here have an
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amplitude about which the observations
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don’t tell us anything there is nothing
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wrong we cannot say that the BIGBANG
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uniform picture is wrong but we can also
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say they also accept such a solution and
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we should just it is interest to see
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what we resolved we can reach if we take
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the other alternative so it means that
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the homogeneity of very large of the
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universe or meter galaxies is also
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always sometimes is called being just
14:58
that part of of the galaxy which with
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the universe we explore here that this
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uniformity is not known with any is not
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true by observations of galaxies what is
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the main proof of it well it is the most
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important phenomenon which has been
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discovered for the flow quite a few
15:27
years in astrophysics namely the
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blackbody radiation which is completely
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isotropic and that shows that that that
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shows that the the universe as a whole
15:44
must be completely isotropic it agrees
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with the Big Bang model and this is
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actually the strongest support that
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wherever there is
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as far as I know the only support there
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is for it or perhaps I should say was
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because one year ago that happened a
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very regrettable thing namely that this
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radiation turned out not to be isotropic
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it is it is may very well be due to
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local anomaly of course but it is if you
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correct for the rotation of the galaxy
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you still get a lot and I so trippy of
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the order of the velocity of the eight
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hundred or thousand kilometers per
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second and if you then correct
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for the motion of our galaxy in relation
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to other galaxies in the Virgo cluster
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which is the larger unit you do not
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either get any any better isotropic so
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it it must be some still not a unit
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where this this unit this anisotropy
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will is caused so I’m not quite sure
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that we could rely on this either
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then comes from the Hubble expansion the
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Big Bang says that everything was
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condensed in a singular point and from
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that the galaxies threw out in all
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directions and there is no this is
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correct with at least to the extent I
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think there is a Hubble expansion the
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galaxies move outwards and this is a
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good diagram which shows the relation
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between the distance is measured by
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corrected apparent magnitude of the
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galaxies and this is the velocity and
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you see that these points
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fit very well on a straight line which
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it should do according to the Big Bang
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Theory they should all be the lie on a
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straight line and of course we have we
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have observational errors because these
18:28
measurements are very difficult to make
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however if we take the individual
18:36
observations here we have the distance
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and we have the velocities and from that
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we could construct a diagram how these
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have moved under the assumption which is
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very reasonable that they haven’t
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changed the velocity this is now the
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distance from us and this is time and
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you see that if you go back in time
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these are all coming closer together now
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every individual point here is used for
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such a straight line and they come
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together here so there is no doubt that
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our meter galaxies is expanding at
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present however is it does this expand
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expansion necessarily derive from a big
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bang here it’s quite possible you cannot
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rule that out because these could very
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well be observational errors it might be
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that everything has derived has
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originated from one point here and then
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it has gone out like this and the the
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minimum size which you get here may very
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well be due to observational errors
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however we cannot say that from
20:09
observations it is possible to conclude
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this we can conclude that once the meter
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galaxy
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was much smaller than now at the Hubble
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time 10 billion years or so it was
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something like 1/10 or less than that it
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could be zero it could be a single
20:28
report but it could very well also be
20:31
much larger so this means that we if we
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try to construct an earlier state of the
20:48
hour meter galaxy from observations we
20:53
could do that that could lead to the Big
20:57
Bang model but it could also according
21:00
to this lead to a rather drastically
21:03
different picture you have here the
21:09
Hubble radius level density and so so on
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and here is is beta that is the velocity
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the velocity of the different galaxies
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which have been measured and the
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galaxies for which one had has measured
21:30
the redshift or most of them are well
21:35
below 0.3 or the velocity of light that
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means that this is the size three times
21:42
ten to the twenty seven if we take the
21:45
Hubble radius to ten to the twenty eight
21:48
professor directed Iraq gave model in
21:54
which he said that he discussed
21:56
especially the the part of the universe
22:02
which was receding with a velocity which
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was less than half the the velocity of
22:10
light which we can take for this and
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here we can take point four as some sort
22:15
of average this is only to show you what
22:19
one may get
22:23
in such a way then you see that the
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total rest mass or the the meter galaxy
22:34
is given here and the rest mass energy
22:39
rest must multiplied by the square of
22:43
the velocity of light comes down to 430
22:47
83 the units is 10 to the seventh er if
22:52
you you can also calculate the kinetic
22:55
energy of this and the kinetic energy
22:58
comes out to be about 19 it is about
23:03
five percent so the known the part of
23:08
the universe which we have observed with
23:11
any degree of certainty has a kinetic
23:14
energy which is about five percent
23:17
little different here of the of the rest
23:23
mass so in some way we we need to have
23:28
an an energy put into the meter galaxy
23:33
which gives you 20% about and this from
23:40
that we can construct I don’t have so
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much time I see that very rapidly this
23:48
is a table of what we have here we what
23:54
is interesting is to see this is the
23:56
minimum size of the mr. galaxy and what
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is interesting is that the we are even
24:04
at the minimum size hundred times
24:09
outside the swati limit which means that
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the correction for the annual relativity
24:15
effect is only 1% what does this mean it
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means that if we go out to the galaxy in
24:22
the galaxy we of course have measured
24:26
general relativity effects in our close
24:29
neighborhood if we go out to study
24:33
the behavior of the galaxy no one
24:38
applies general relativity everything
24:41
every world emotions that can be a
24:43
platter can be used can be calculated
24:46
with classical mechanics if we go out
24:49
further out as soon as we are far from
24:53
the general from the Swart real image we
24:56
can use classical mechanics and use
25:00
Euclidian geometry with a high degree of
25:03
certainty so actually with this model we
25:06
have a 1% correction for the general
25:09
relativity and something like 10 perhaps
25:12
25 percent correction for the special
25:16
theory of relativity so you see that
25:18
this is this is is a possible model
25:23
which as I said is just as well
25:27
reconcilable with the observations with
25:32
the observational data as the big big
25:34
bang theory as far as I can see however
25:38
now comes another thing if you in that
25:47
is that there are so many other very
25:50
interesting phenomena which have been
25:52
absorbed in the in the in astrophysics
25:57
and one of the most dramatic events the
26:00
dramatic things is the true source the
26:03
cars and the cars have velocities
26:07
redshifts which are much larger than the
26:10
galaxies under the assumption that the
26:15
the grey stars which you azuz
26:17
have the redshift which is do which is
26:22
cosmological that is due to the Big Bang
26:24
then you can go out from a point from
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point three the velocity of light point
26:33
four out to the almost the velocity of
26:38
life to our red shifts which are up to
26:40
two or three or perhaps even more
26:42
so it is a critical question whether the
26:47
redshifts of the QA source is
26:49
cosmological or not and the redshifts
26:53
the the cure souls are a very very
26:59
interesting very fascinating thing to
27:03
study and I have here a short summary of
27:09
their properties they are not really
27:13
introduced very much in the general
27:16
cosmological discussion and the reason
27:20
for this is simply that they are very
27:23
awkward to the Big Bang cosmology
27:26
there is no evident explanation of it
27:29
and you can see that they they are
27:33
causing considerable trouble the Q
27:38
source a very large releases of energy
27:41
it is of the order of the annihilation
27:44
of one solar mass per year and in some
27:48
cases still more they have redshifts
27:51
which are very large and the
27:54
controversial question or the thread is
27:57
are these relatives cosmological or are
28:00
they caused by some other other
28:05
mechanisms and then you can see that
28:09
what we should take out here is is
28:13
especially that some torsos are located
28:20
close to galaxies and in certain cases
28:23
they have the same redshift as the
28:26
galaxies but there are many cases and
28:28
undoubtedly very convincing evidence
28:31
that there are curios closely reclose to
28:36
galaxies but they have very different
28:39
redshift and this is is
28:44
has been demonstrated by more
28:47
measurements by Margaret parish the
28:50
garbages have very strong evidence for
28:54
the non cosmological redshifts and are
28:58
in Pasadena has made beautiful
29:01
measurements of this so there must be
29:04
mechanisms by which these QSOs get up to
29:11
close to the velocity of light without
29:13
being these velocities being produced by
29:18
the cosmic eye the Big Bang and you can
29:23
see what requirements one has here the
29:26
if if you have the amour if you take the
29:31
enormous energy release which they are
29:34
measured and you introduce the condition
29:37
that this energy is emitted in one
29:40
direction then you can get the the
29:43
bodies up to these velocities this is
29:46
one possible suggestion to to get to
29:52
explain that you a source this means
29:56
that the very large velocities are not
30:00
missing which we absorb are not
30:02
necessarily cosmological there are other
30:04
mechanisms also but what are these
30:07
mechanisms what is the mechanism which
30:10
produces the energy of the few issues we
30:14
see immediately that the nuclear energy
30:18
which is giving us the end of the energy
30:23
of the stars is by far north sufficient
30:27
so we have three possibilities we have
30:30
either to invent a new law or physics
30:33
which gives you this very large energy
30:37
releases which we perhaps are listener
30:41
to you to do we have two other
30:44
alternatives left one is gravitational
30:48
energy and the other is annihilation and
30:52
the gravitational energy there have been
30:55
a number of theories according to which
30:58
black holes produce these large energy
31:01
releases but if you try to work out a
31:04
theory of the cubes those how they are
31:06
accelerated you find that you run into
31:08
very serious difficulties and then it’s
31:11
just the possibility that we have
31:14
annulation
31:15
as an energy source and that brings up
31:19
an interesting problem namely is that
31:23
antimatter in the universe is the
31:26
universe symmetric with regard to matter
31:28
and antimatter this has of course been
31:31
speculated much about it and it is Oscar
31:36
Klein in Stockholm who has made twenty
31:40
years ago a systematic effort to show
31:45
that to make a cosmological model or
31:49
with the width and where are the
31:54
symmetry between matter and antimatter
31:57
this there has been much objection to
32:00
that and this is essentially because if
32:04
matter and antimatter are mixed in the
32:07
universe you would have an enormous
32:09
gamma radiation and you will have a very
32:13
rapid inhalation orbit all so that this
32:19
could only be very good could not
32:23
persist for a very long time however all
32:27
this depends upon the assumption that
32:31
you have that the universe is is
32:35
homogeneous we have the that there is
32:39
can be no that there cannot be separate
32:44
separate regions and this is one of the
32:50
really dramatic new if new results of
32:54
Space Research namely rats the
32:57
properties of space has changed in a
33:00
drastic way and I am NOT speaking about
33:03
the four dimensional
33:04
space in the Big Bang Theory’s I’m
33:08
speaking about the space which is
33:10
explored by spacecrafts 50 years ago it
33:17
was believed that everything was
33:19
vacuumed outside the celestial bodies
33:23
then it was observed that there was an
33:26
interstellar medium interplanetary
33:29
medium interstellar medium and we heard
33:33
earlier lecture about that and it is it
33:37
was then natural to assume that this was
33:40
a continuous video and it was natural to
33:44
assume that also in our close
33:47
neighborhood in the environment of the
33:50
earth so-called magnetosphere and in the
33:53
interstellar interplanetary space the
33:56
so-called
33:57
heliosphere or solar magnetosphere the
34:01
we had homogeneous medium this has not
34:06
is not correct this is one of the most
34:11
most surprising results of space
34:15
research if you have if you have the
34:18
magnetic field as a function of the
34:22
radius from the earth this is the earth
34:25
and you go out and measure the magnetic
34:28
field by spacecrafts it should decay as
34:31
R to the minus 3 and that is just what
34:36
it does out to about 10 or avi or
34:41
something like that then it suddenly
34:43
changes to the opposite sign and goes on
34:46
like this and this is a most dramatic
34:50
change it is it takes place in a region
34:55
which is a few micron radii it is a
34:59
sudden change in the magnetization so
35:02
the magnetization here is in that
35:04
direction
35:05
and it is here in that direction the
35:07
magnetization of space is not continuous
35:10
it is this
35:11
continuous it means that we have a
35:13
current layer of him in such phenomena
35:16
have been found not only in the
35:18
magnetopause it has also been found in
35:21
the my need to tail of the earth in the
35:23
solar equatorial plane we have an
35:27
outward directed magnetic field which
35:30
suddenly changes to the opposite and
35:32
again there is a thin current layer it
35:36
has been found in the Jovian may indeed
35:38
Jupiter’s magnetosphere and so on there
35:42
is half a dozen places where we observe
35:45
this it means that space in our closed
35:49
environment has a cellular structure
35:51
there are cells with that magnetization
35:54
and there are cells with that
35:55
magnetization and it is rather
35:58
watertight separation surfaces and this
36:06
is this means that we have the space is
36:12
no longer uniform it consists of a
36:17
number of cells and they are separated
36:20
by current layers and on two sides of
36:23
the current layer you have different
36:25
monetization different pressure
36:27
different densities and perhaps you also
36:30
could have different matters different
36:33
kinds of matter such thin layers I
36:38
should just show you here what it is
36:41
this is the interplanetary medium this
36:44
is the earth the Earth’s had a magnetic
36:46
field like that that is 50 years ago
36:49
when space charge space research started
36:52
we got this picture a neutral she’s here
36:55
now this is one of the later models
36:59
faces the earth and you see a number of
37:02
such large space is drastically
37:05
different from what it was earlier and
37:07
these interfaces cannot be detect had
37:12
were not detected from the earth they
37:15
cannot be detected unless the spacecraft
37:17
penetrates it
37:19
even if it comes close to it you see no
37:20
sign of it we know hence that space has
37:24
this structure how far out as far as the
37:28
spacecraft go and what is beyond that no
37:32
one knows we cannot prove that it is as
37:36
the same cellular structure further out
37:39
it could very well be that we have a
37:41
wonderful homogeneous model but the
37:44
limit is just as far as spacecrafts go
37:47
so perhaps it is easier to assume that
37:51
this is a general property of space that
37:54
it always everywhere has this structure
37:57
and then time is getting on we can just
38:02
see here a model of a layer separating
38:08
matter and anti-matter we have supposed
38:12
that in interplanetary space we have
38:16
interstellar space we have a region
38:18
containing matter in another region
38:20
containing antimatter and then there
38:24
will be a boundary layer where they keep
38:27
in contact and they produce high-energy
38:32
particles here and you can calc you can
38:35
see that these the the number of such
38:38
particles which are produced is very
38:40
small you have no hope of detecting it
38:44
from any any a difference in a distance
38:47
and the DS and the distance which such
38:52
Leidenfrost Laura occupies need only to
38:56
be a hundred or thousands or ten
39:00
thousands of a Lightyear so we can very
39:03
very well assuming that the settlers if
39:07
we if we accept a cellular structure we
39:10
can very well think the universe divided
39:13
in such regions and this is important
39:17
because it’s obvious that it has was
39:21
poor logical consequences quite a few of
39:24
them which I shouldn’t go into more here
39:27
I should only like to say that it seems
39:30
that with this with the idea of the
39:35
symmetric universe you can explain try
39:38
to fill of the of the observations which
39:41
are embarrassing to the astrophysics and
39:46
especially to cosmology namely the
39:49
enormous release of energy in the in the
39:53
to ourselves the so called gamma-ray
39:57
bursts
39:57
quite a lot of the x-ray radiation and
40:00
so on but this will be the take us too
40:05
far I thank you
40:09
[Applause]
00:16
achievements of Space Research 25 years
00:21
of Space Research and its application to
00:29
the more distant regions of space and I
00:34
will concentrate on its the change it
00:38
has produced in plasma physics I think
00:42
this is an illustration of what
00:45
Professor Naugle said that you should
00:48
not believe in what is accepted today
00:52
because that may very well change very
00:55
rapidly first of all you may ask is
01:00
plasma physics or very much importance
01:05
in astrophysics if you read the usual
01:09
textbooks in astrophysics you don’t
01:12
think this is the case but in reality
01:15
the Stars consist of plasmas and the
01:19
interstellar medium also plasmas and it
01:23
seems that the universe consists to
01:28
ninety-nine more than 99% of plasma in
01:34
fact at least by the volume more than
01:37
ninety nine point nine nine nine nine
01:40
nine nine nine percent of us of plasma
01:44
so plasma physics should not be
01:47
considered to be completely irrelevant
01:50
to the research how the universe is
01:55
structured to be more specific the
02:00
plasma physics extends from the
02:04
laboratory typically this is in a
02:07
logarithmic scale that is typically one
02:10
tenth of a meter for a not normal
02:14
experiment up to the mine it was fierce
02:17
the magnetic fields surrounding the
02:19
earth and the other planets and the Sun
02:21
that is about ten to the
02:24
meters and then can we come up this is a
02:28
jump of nine orders of magnitude by
02:32
another jump by a factor of 1 billion
02:35
you come up to the Galactic phenomena
02:40
and the third jump this is a cosmic
02:44
triple jump brings you up to the Hubble
02:47
distance which is what the Big Bang
02:51
believers call the size of the universe
02:56
this is 27 orders of magnitude and laser
03:00
fusion has extended it downwards to by
03:05
five orders of magnitude more it there
03:10
are reasons to believe that the basic
03:12
properties of a plasma is the same in
03:16
all the in the whole region this is by
03:20
no means certain we can trust that it is
03:23
so in the laboratory and in the
03:26
magnetospheres because there we have
03:28
reliable measurements the earth to this
03:32
limit outside this the field is
03:37
necessarily more speculative because
03:40
what is called high quality Diagnostics
03:44
that is an investigation of the
03:48
properties of a plasma a is possible in
03:53
the laboratory and as far out as the
03:57
space crafts go but it is not possible
04:02
further out whether we should believe
04:05
except that plasma changes its
04:09
properties at the outer reefs or
04:12
spacecraft or not this is a thing which
04:15
we cannot prove but I think there are
04:18
good reasons to suppose so what has
04:22
happened in this field you’re in the
04:24
last years it is especially that the
04:30
Piney of the space research has made the
04:33
magnetosphere
04:35
Cybil to detailed analysis by high
04:41
quality instruments which are sent out
04:44
here and going up and down up and down
04:48
and sending signals to the earth which
04:53
have been interpreted in detail the
04:57
result of this is at the same time
05:00
laboratory research has made great great
05:05
step forward to some extent favored by
05:09
to large extent favored by the fusion
05:13
work which is going on there so far the
05:17
fusion research has not given us any
05:20
energy but it has given us very valuable
05:23
information which can be used for
05:27
clarifying the structure of the universe
05:31
there has also been much work spent in
05:34
the translation between laboratory work
05:38
and the magnetosphere and the result of
05:41
this is that we have got a drastic
05:44
change in our concept of what the
05:48
plasmas out in space a are like in
05:52
reality if there are half a dozen
05:56
different respects in which this change
06:00
has taken place and I’m going to select
06:07
a few of them to try and try to to
06:11
discuss them more in detail one of the
06:14
important thing is that our concept of
06:19
the structure of interplanetary
06:22
interstellar and intergalactic change
06:25
space has changed drastically 50 years
06:30
ago it was generally believed that the
06:34
space between the stars between the
06:38
planets satellites Commerce and so on
06:40
was absolutely empty it is from that
06:45
point of view at
06:47
really empty but they’re not not
06:50
absolutely empty
06:51
it is rather empty but the little matter
06:54
which is between is very important 25
06:59
years ago it was real the attention was
07:02
drawn to the interstellar interplanetary
07:06
matter and this was then considered to
07:14
be a homogeneous nebulous gas with dust
07:19
in it space research has given us a new
07:24
view which you can call the space age
07:27
concept of space namely that space is
07:31
highly structure iced it is penetrated
07:34
by a network of electric currents and
07:38
this is something which is of importance
07:43
in all fields of plasma physics we know
07:48
that this is so after this limit there
07:52
are good reasons to suppose that the
07:54
whole universe is penetrated by has this
08:00
this structure highly structure eyes
08:04
penetrated by electric currents more
08:09
specifically what a structure iced mean
08:14
it means that we have discovered a
08:18
number of phenomena which are strongly
08:22
in homogeneous there are electric double
08:28
layers which you find everywhere in in
08:35
space these were not believed to exist
08:39
up to something like five years ago now
08:43
they are very popular there was quite a
08:47
few weeks ago symposium in Denmark where
08:53
there were 50 of the most prominent
08:55
people working in this field who
08:58
discussed the properties of the
09:01
what is a doubler if we have an electric
09:06
current in this direction then under
09:11
certain conditions we have a density of
09:16
the plasma which is fairly homogeneous
09:18
this is the density and this line gives
09:23
the electric potential the voltage which
09:27
increases slowly there is an electric
09:30
field which drives the current through
09:33
the plasma however when a double arrow
09:37
is produced the conditions is changed
09:41
like this here is the voltage it makes a
09:45
certain jump and then has another
09:49
constant value and the density changes
09:52
in a corresponding way such double
09:57
layers were well-known in the laboratory
10:00
since the time of Langmuir about 50
10:03
years ago it was denied by that they
10:10
could be of any importance in space
10:12
until they were actually discovered
10:15
there are such trouble airs at the
10:19
height of something like one or two
10:23
radii above the earth and this is a
10:30
picture of the earth and these are
10:35
magnetic field lines and here in the
10:40
equatorial plane at a distance of five
10:43
or six radii you have a plasma flow
10:47
sunward plasma flow this is seen from
10:51
the night side and that produces an
10:54
electromotive force here and this
10:57
produces electric currents which flow
11:00
along magnetic field lines to the earth
11:04
then through the ionosphere and back
11:06
again to the to the
11:10
equatorial plane so we have we are here
11:15
discussing an Astrophysical problem not
11:20
in terms of magnetic fields as has
11:22
usually been done but to the same extent
11:25
in in terms of electric currents and
11:29
these electric currents may produce
11:32
double airs and here is double air at
11:37
one or two Earth radii and that means
11:41
that we have a sudden jump in the
11:44
voltage there which produces in which
11:50
Aurora’s are auroral electrons are
11:53
accelerated here we have the
11:56
electro-motive force here the auroral
11:58
electrons are accelerated and the energy
12:01
is transferred by the circuit this is
12:05
not a hypothetical theoretical
12:08
hypothetical picture it is something
12:10
which is actually measured by
12:14
spacecrafts which have penetrated many
12:17
times of course there are many details
12:19
which are still obscure these double
12:26
layers may have voltage differences or
12:31
kilowatts which you have here solar
12:33
flares it is mega balls or gigawatts and
12:36
they may be still higher then the the
12:43
filament the currents produce filaments
12:48
in cosmical physics we are accustomed to
12:52
the Newtonian attraction the general
12:56
gravitation which typically produce aims
13:00
at producing spheres like stars and
13:04
planets and so on however we have also
13:08
electromagnetic forces and these
13:12
electromagnetic forces they tend to
13:14
produce filaments the basic phenomenon
13:18
is known for a very long time it is
13:20
actually because of our slow
13:22
that two parallel currents attract each
13:25
other and this produces electric pinches
13:30
and filamentary structures and such
13:35
filamentary structures are common in the
13:38
universe can I have the slides here and
13:42
we have good reasons to suppose that
13:46
whenever you have the observer filament
13:50
that is just an indication that we have
13:54
electric currents pinching electric
13:57
currents there can I have the first
13:59
slide yes this is the Sun this is the
14:06
solar corona and if you sharpen the
14:09
picture a little you will see that this
14:11
has thin thin thin filaments in every
14:14
direction the sun goddess actually has a
14:18
beautiful hair which you see here and
14:21
these filaments are likely to be you to
14:25
electric currents which produce the
14:28
piece the so called pinch effect produce
14:31
filaments out of it
14:32
next slide here is a comet and here you
14:37
see striations filaments of the same
14:40
kind the tail of a comet is obviously
14:45
you a plasma phenomenon this was first
14:49
turned pointed out by Professor beer man
14:53
here in Germany next slide here are
14:59
photographs of inter of interplan
15:02
interstellar space far out in the galaxy
15:05
you see thin filaments everywhere next
15:09
slide here are other filaments of the
15:13
same kind next slide here is an ordinary
15:19
cosmic cloud which seems to be
15:21
homogeneous structure but if you subject
15:25
it to what is called contrast
15:29
enhancement technology you get this
15:32
picture that is you are you put it into
15:34
a computer in our
15:36
the computer to look for for contrast
15:39
and then you see it is penetrated by
15:42
filaments which is a strong indication
15:44
that filamentary structure that there
15:48
are electric currents in also there and
15:53
I have one more slide here you have dark
15:57
lanes which probably are also due to
16:01
filaments this is just some arbitrary
16:06
examples to show you how important the
16:11
formation of filaments are and what is
16:15
likely to be due to then comes surface
16:21
currents in space which are also very
16:25
dramatic it is actually to me it was the
16:34
most important the most shocking
16:37
discovery namely that if you go out from
16:41
the earth measure the magnetic field out
16:46
from the earth you observe this is now
16:51
the distance from the earth this is the
16:54
magnetic field you observe that it
16:56
decreases approximately as author on the
16:59
minus three as it should do out to
17:02
something like seven or eight radii then
17:05
it may certainly change its sign and
17:10
this is made very abruptly in a in a
17:14
very very short distance some hundred
17:17
kilometers less than the distance from
17:19
here to Paris for example and what space
17:24
craft records here is that you have
17:29
constant value here with some
17:31
fluctuation and then certainly it jumps
17:34
over in this way this demonstrates that
17:37
there is a thin current layer which
17:41
which separates the earth
17:45
the plasma controlled by the Earth’s
17:47
magnetic field from the plasma
17:49
controlled by the solar magnetic field
17:52
and such double airs they are found on
17:57
many places on the Jupiter Saturn quite
18:03
a few other places comets and so on we
18:07
have something like 10 different cases
18:09
where we have such thin thin filaments
18:13
the and they separate regions which may
18:19
have different magnetization x’ it goes
18:22
here like that
18:24
and outside it goes like this it also
18:27
the regions may also have different
18:32
temperature different density different
18:39
different chemical composition and if we
18:43
go out in space further on it may be
18:46
that similar layer separates regions of
18:50
ordinary matter from antimatter if we
18:54
extrapolate the awkward thing with such
18:58
layer is that you cannot observe it
19:02
until you penetrate it I attended the
19:05
meeting in in I attended the arrival of
19:11
the space probe to Saturn and then it
19:19
was dramatic
19:22
dramatic no one saw it and certainly
19:25
everybody in the big hole saw it here it
19:28
comes and this makes it awkward too
19:33
because if you go out to the
19:37
interplanetary to the intergalactic to
19:43
the gallic interstellar and
19:44
intergalactic regions you may have
19:48
similar structures there and they cannot
19:50
be observed now it is very unpleasant to
19:55
introduce the search
19:57
concept if you cannot observe it but it
20:00
is still more unpleasant least to me to
20:03
postulate that at the outer edge of the
20:07
reach of the spacecraft space changes
20:10
its properties and this has far-reaching
20:12
consequences for astrophysics in general
20:17
and not the least for cosmology now if
20:22
we try to apply all this to to see what
20:27
changes it this makes for astrophysics
20:34
in general I think many people are
20:37
mostly interested in the application to
20:43
the to the cosmology and I have tried to
20:49
concentrate on it I don’t think there is
20:51
time enough to give or develop present a
20:55
new cosmology here the application is
21:00
first of all that space has a cellular
21:03
structure and this means that the
21:07
existence of antimatter is not excluded
21:10
there are a number of very nice
21:13
arguments for against the attack the
21:17
existence of antimatter in the universe
21:20
but these are all based on a concept
21:24
which we know now is not valid so we
21:29
cannot exclude the existence of
21:31
antimatter and the universe may very
21:35
well be symmetric with regard to
21:37
ordinary matter and antimatter then
21:41
comes an analysis of the redshift the
21:46
redshift in demonstrates without any
21:51
question it must be a Doppler shift and
21:54
I think it is impossible to avoid that
21:57
the the redshift
22:01
demonstrates that the universe the or to
22:07
be more correct use the old term
22:09
meet a galaxy that means all the
22:12
galaxies we can observe it is a synonym
22:15
to what the Big Bang believers call the
22:18
universe
22:19
if you plot the redshift that is the
22:24
velocity of galaxies and here is the
22:28
sigh the distance to the galaxies you
22:31
get this famous Hubble diagram and
22:35
people conclude that this proves that
22:38
there is a linear relation between the
22:45
expansion and the distance this this and
22:51
that the deviations from the straight
22:55
line here is are due to observational
23:01
errors this may very well be so but it
23:06
is not necessary to make such a
23:07
conclusion if you take each individual
23:10
point in extrapolate backwards in time
23:14
you see here that this is now
23:18
and from here you extrapolate backwards
23:20
in time and then this is the distance
23:25
from the earth or in the reference
23:28
system you see that is do not
23:30
necessarily coincide in one point they
23:34
spread here over a large region and it
23:38
does not exclude that everything would
23:41
converge in one point but it does not
23:44
prove it it is it proves that the
23:50
emitter galaxy
23:51
at present is expanding and that it was
23:53
once about ten billion years ago one
23:58
tenth of the present size that is one
24:01
billion years ago
24:02
1 billion light years but this is not
24:06
proved at all furthermore it has been
24:12
discovered that space has a
24:16
as a hierarchal structure the hierarchal
24:21
model was introduced by Charlie a long
24:25
before the big bang round in the
24:28
beginning of this century and it said
24:31
that stars are aggregated to galaxies
24:35
galaxies to what we now should call
24:38
clusters of galaxies and clusters of
24:41
galaxies to super clusters and
24:43
superclusters to some larger units it is
24:47
if this hierarchical structure follows
24:50
general law then we can be we can
24:56
satisfy some conditions the Albert
24:59
objection and thus a legal objection to
25:03
infinite universe this was was not
25:12
believed in until 1972 popular
25:17
demonstrated he’s a very famous observer
25:20
that this really is true
25:22
the universe has the galaxies the
25:29
galaxies and so on are arranged into a
25:32
hierarchical structure and this is how
25:39
the Booker’s diagram looks actually it
25:44
is plotted in different coordinates this
25:46
is the size of a structure and this is
25:50
mass of it here you see that the stars
25:54
are are here they this limit which is
25:59
very important that is the the Swat
26:03
shield the Laplace what shield limit it
26:07
means actually that on the other side
26:09
appear we have black holes you see here
26:14
that starts go down and neutron stars
26:18
may approach this very limit rather much
26:22
but if we go out to galaxies and
26:25
clusters of galaxies and so on they are
26:27
very far
26:28
from the short Shield limit this is
26:31
actually given in escape velocity it’s
26:38
actually two orders of magnitude in
26:40
density here so they are four or five
26:42
orders of magnitude from the swati limit
26:47
it means that the general theory of
26:50
relativity comes in here as a correction
26:53
which is negligible ten to the minus
26:57
four or ten to the minus five as far out
27:00
as we know then if we extrapolate to the
27:04
meter galaxy using the same formalism it
27:08
comes here for orders of magnitude in
27:11
density from the sporty limit so the
27:16
hierarchal structure of space which
27:20
DeVoe Color introduced 1970 that is that
27:26
was not believed until in the end of the
27:31
of the 70s it was general Peebles and
27:36
collaborators make high highly
27:39
sophisticated statistical analysis and
27:42
did confirm this so you can say that the
27:45
hierarchal structure of space is now a
27:49
an observational ii confirmed structure
27:53
and there is a large void regions here
27:57
region here which makes it very unlikely
28:01
that space is is closed is closed which
28:08
it it should be if it is on the other
28:10
side of the laplace or the laplace
28:14
virtual limit i think this is
28:17
approaching its its end and this is the
28:23
sand reckoner which the which Archimedes
28:27
as as title for one of his most famous
28:36
books and if I should conclude this I
28:40
think that we should not take the
28:43
generally accepted Big Bang hypothesis
28:47
as as confirmed by observations instead
28:52
I should like to quote once again what
28:55
Professor Naugle said and I think that
28:58
space research has given us so much new
29:02
information about it about what the
29:06
space structures are like and it is as
29:10
far as I can see unavoidable that this
29:13
will shake the concepts of the basic
29:18
concepts of astrophysics in a rather
29:21
drastic way so if I should conclude this
29:26
by giving an advice to the 500 students
29:30
here it is that those of you are
29:33
interested in astrophysics should not
29:36
take the curriculum in the general
29:39
theory of relativity but instead a very
29:42
good course in modern plasma physics
29:45
thank you
29:56
you
29:56
[Applause]

Selection_377

00:11
I’m going to report about the
00:16
achievements of Space Research 25 years
00:21
of Space Research and its application to
00:29
the more distant regions of space and I
00:34
will concentrate on its the change it
00:38
has produced in plasma physics I think
00:42
this is an illustration of what
00:45
Professor Naugle said that you should
00:48
not believe in what is accepted today
00:52
because that may very well change very
00:55
rapidly first of all you may ask is
01:00
plasma physics or very much importance
01:05
in astrophysics if you read the usual
01:09
textbooks in astrophysics you don’t
01:12
think this is the case but in reality
01:15
the Stars consist of plasmas and the
01:19
interstellar medium also plasmas and it
01:23
seems that the universe consists to
01:28
ninety-nine more than 99% of plasma in
01:34
fact at least by the volume more than
01:37
ninety nine point nine nine nine nine
01:40
nine nine nine percent of us of plasma
01:44
so plasma physics should not be
01:47
considered to be completely irrelevant
01:50
to the research how the universe is
01:55
structured to be more specific the
02:00
plasma physics extends from the
02:04
laboratory typically this is in a
02:07
logarithmic scale that is typically one
02:10
tenth of a meter for a not normal
02:14
experiment up to the mine it was fierce
02:17
the magnetic fields surrounding the
02:19
earth and the other planets and the Sun
02:21
that is about ten to the
02:24
meters and then can we come up this is a
02:28
jump of nine orders of magnitude by
02:32
another jump by a factor of 1 billion
02:35
you come up to the Galactic phenomena
02:40
and the third jump this is a cosmic
02:44
triple jump brings you up to the Hubble
02:47
distance which is what the Big Bang
02:51
believers call the size of the universe
02:56
this is 27 orders of magnitude and laser
03:00
fusion has extended it downwards to by
03:05
five orders of magnitude more it there
03:10
are reasons to believe that the basic
03:12
properties of a plasma is the same in
03:16
all the in the whole region this is by
03:20
no means certain we can trust that it is
03:23
so in the laboratory and in the
03:26
magnetospheres because there we have
03:28
reliable measurements the earth to this
03:32
limit outside this the field is
03:37
necessarily more speculative because
03:40
what is called high quality Diagnostics
03:44
that is an investigation of the
03:48
properties of a plasma a is possible in
03:53
the laboratory and as far out as the
03:57
space crafts go but it is not possible
04:02
further out whether we should believe
04:05
except that plasma changes its
04:09
properties at the outer reefs or
04:12
spacecraft or not this is a thing which
04:15
we cannot prove but I think there are
04:18
good reasons to suppose so what has
04:22
happened in this field you’re in the
04:24
last years it is especially that the
04:30
Piney of the space research has made the
04:33
magnetosphere
04:35
Cybil to detailed analysis by high
04:41
quality instruments which are sent out
04:44
here and going up and down up and down
04:48
and sending signals to the earth which
04:53
have been interpreted in detail the
04:57
result of this is at the same time
05:00
laboratory research has made great great
05:05
step forward to some extent favored by
05:09
to large extent favored by the fusion
05:13
work which is going on there so far the
05:17
fusion research has not given us any
05:20
energy but it has given us very valuable
05:23
information which can be used for
05:27
clarifying the structure of the universe
05:31
there has also been much work spent in
05:34
the translation between laboratory work
05:38
and the magnetosphere and the result of
05:41
this is that we have got a drastic
05:44
change in our concept of what the
05:48
plasmas out in space a are like in
05:52
reality if there are half a dozen
05:56
different respects in which this change
06:00
has taken place and I’m going to select
06:07
a few of them to try and try to to
06:11
discuss them more in detail one of the
06:14
important thing is that our concept of
06:19
the structure of interplanetary
06:22
interstellar and intergalactic change
06:25
space has changed drastically 50 years
06:30
ago it was generally believed that the
06:34
space between the stars between the
06:38
planets satellites Commerce and so on
06:40
was absolutely empty it is from that
06:45
point of view at
06:47
really empty but they’re not not
06:50
absolutely empty
06:51
it is rather empty but the little matter
06:54
which is between is very important 25
06:59
years ago it was real the attention was
07:02
drawn to the interstellar interplanetary
07:06
matter and this was then considered to
07:14
be a homogeneous nebulous gas with dust
07:19
in it space research has given us a new
07:24
view which you can call the space age
07:27
concept of space namely that space is
07:31
highly structure iced it is penetrated
07:34
by a network of electric currents and
07:38
this is something which is of importance
07:43
in all fields of plasma physics we know
07:48
that this is so after this limit there
07:52
are good reasons to suppose that the
07:54
whole universe is penetrated by has this
08:00
this structure highly structure eyes
08:04
penetrated by electric currents more
08:09
specifically what a structure iced mean
08:14
it means that we have discovered a
08:18
number of phenomena which are strongly
08:22
in homogeneous there are electric double
08:28
layers which you find everywhere in in
08:35
space these were not believed to exist
08:39
up to something like five years ago now
08:43
they are very popular there was quite a
08:47
few weeks ago symposium in Denmark where
08:53
there were 50 of the most prominent
08:55
people working in this field who
08:58
discussed the properties of the
09:01
what is a doubler if we have an electric
09:06
current in this direction then under
09:11
certain conditions we have a density of
09:16
the plasma which is fairly homogeneous
09:18
this is the density and this line gives
09:23
the electric potential the voltage which
09:27
increases slowly there is an electric
09:30
field which drives the current through
09:33
the plasma however when a double arrow
09:37
is produced the conditions is changed
09:41
like this here is the voltage it makes a
09:45
certain jump and then has another
09:49
constant value and the density changes
09:52
in a corresponding way such double
09:57
layers were well-known in the laboratory
10:00
since the time of Langmuir about 50
10:03
years ago it was denied by that they
10:10
could be of any importance in space
10:12
until they were actually discovered
10:15
there are such trouble airs at the
10:19
height of something like one or two
10:23
radii above the earth and this is a
10:30
picture of the earth and these are
10:35
magnetic field lines and here in the
10:40
equatorial plane at a distance of five
10:43
or six radii you have a plasma flow
10:47
sunward plasma flow this is seen from
10:51
the night side and that produces an
10:54
electromotive force here and this
10:57
produces electric currents which flow
11:00
along magnetic field lines to the earth
11:04
then through the ionosphere and back
11:06
again to the to the
11:10
equatorial plane so we have we are here
11:15
discussing an Astrophysical problem not
11:20
in terms of magnetic fields as has
11:22
usually been done but to the same extent
11:25
in in terms of electric currents and
11:29
these electric currents may produce
11:32
double airs and here is double air at
11:37
one or two Earth radii and that means
11:41
that we have a sudden jump in the
11:44
voltage there which produces in which
11:50
Aurora’s are auroral electrons are
11:53
accelerated here we have the
11:56
electro-motive force here the auroral
11:58
electrons are accelerated and the energy
12:01
is transferred by the circuit this is
12:05
not a hypothetical theoretical
12:08
hypothetical picture it is something
12:10
which is actually measured by
12:14
spacecrafts which have penetrated many
12:17
times of course there are many details
12:19
which are still obscure these double
12:26
layers may have voltage differences or
12:31
kilowatts which you have here solar
12:33
flares it is mega balls or gigawatts and
12:36
they may be still higher then the the
12:43
filament the currents produce filaments
12:48
in cosmical physics we are accustomed to
12:52
the Newtonian attraction the general
12:56
gravitation which typically produce aims
13:00
at producing spheres like stars and
13:04
planets and so on however we have also
13:08
electromagnetic forces and these
13:12
electromagnetic forces they tend to
13:14
produce filaments the basic phenomenon
13:18
is known for a very long time it is
13:20
actually because of our slow
13:22
that two parallel currents attract each
13:25
other and this produces electric pinches
13:30
and filamentary structures and such
13:35
filamentary structures are common in the
13:38
universe can I have the slides here and
13:42
we have good reasons to suppose that
13:46
whenever you have the observer filament
13:50
that is just an indication that we have
13:54
electric currents pinching electric
13:57
currents there can I have the first
13:59
slide yes this is the Sun this is the
14:06
solar corona and if you sharpen the
14:09
picture a little you will see that this
14:11
has thin thin thin filaments in every
14:14
direction the sun goddess actually has a
14:18
beautiful hair which you see here and
14:21
these filaments are likely to be you to
14:25
electric currents which produce the
14:28
piece the so called pinch effect produce
14:31
filaments out of it
14:32
next slide here is a comet and here you
14:37
see striations filaments of the same
14:40
kind the tail of a comet is obviously
14:45
you a plasma phenomenon this was first
14:49
turned pointed out by Professor beer man
14:53
here in Germany next slide here are
14:59
photographs of inter of interplan
15:02
interstellar space far out in the galaxy
15:05
you see thin filaments everywhere next
15:09
slide here are other filaments of the
15:13
same kind next slide here is an ordinary
15:19
cosmic cloud which seems to be
15:21
homogeneous structure but if you subject
15:25
it to what is called contrast
15:29
enhancement technology you get this
15:32
picture that is you are you put it into
15:34
a computer in our
15:36
the computer to look for for contrast
15:39
and then you see it is penetrated by
15:42
filaments which is a strong indication
15:44
that filamentary structure that there
15:48
are electric currents in also there and
15:53
I have one more slide here you have dark
15:57
lanes which probably are also due to
16:01
filaments this is just some arbitrary
16:06
examples to show you how important the
16:11
formation of filaments are and what is
16:15
likely to be due to then comes surface
16:21
currents in space which are also very
16:25
dramatic it is actually to me it was the
16:34
most important the most shocking
16:37
discovery namely that if you go out from
16:41
the earth measure the magnetic field out
16:46
from the earth you observe this is now
16:51
the distance from the earth this is the
16:54
magnetic field you observe that it
16:56
decreases approximately as author on the
16:59
minus three as it should do out to
17:02
something like seven or eight radii then
17:05
it may certainly change its sign and
17:10
this is made very abruptly in a in a
17:14
very very short distance some hundred
17:17
kilometers less than the distance from
17:19
here to Paris for example and what space
17:24
craft records here is that you have
17:29
constant value here with some
17:31
fluctuation and then certainly it jumps
17:34
over in this way this demonstrates that
17:37
there is a thin current layer which
17:41
which separates the earth
17:45
the plasma controlled by the Earth’s
17:47
magnetic field from the plasma
17:49
controlled by the solar magnetic field
17:52
and such double airs they are found on
17:57
many places on the Jupiter Saturn quite
18:03
a few other places comets and so on we
18:07
have something like 10 different cases
18:09
where we have such thin thin filaments
18:13
the and they separate regions which may
18:19
have different magnetization x’ it goes
18:22
here like that
18:24
and outside it goes like this it also
18:27
the regions may also have different
18:32
temperature different density different
18:39
different chemical composition and if we
18:43
go out in space further on it may be
18:46
that similar layer separates regions of
18:50
ordinary matter from antimatter if we
18:54
extrapolate the awkward thing with such
18:58
layer is that you cannot observe it
19:02
until you penetrate it I attended the
19:05
meeting in in I attended the arrival of
19:11
the space probe to Saturn and then it
19:19
was dramatic
19:22
dramatic no one saw it and certainly
19:25
everybody in the big hole saw it here it
19:28
comes and this makes it awkward too
19:33
because if you go out to the
19:37
interplanetary to the intergalactic to
19:43
the gallic interstellar and
19:44
intergalactic regions you may have
19:48
similar structures there and they cannot
19:50
be observed now it is very unpleasant to
19:55
introduce the search
19:57
concept if you cannot observe it but it
20:00
is still more unpleasant least to me to
20:03
postulate that at the outer edge of the
20:07
reach of the spacecraft space changes
20:10
its properties and this has far-reaching
20:12
consequences for astrophysics in general
20:17
and not the least for cosmology now if
20:22
we try to apply all this to to see what
20:27
changes it this makes for astrophysics
20:34
in general I think many people are
20:37
mostly interested in the application to
20:43
the to the cosmology and I have tried to
20:49
concentrate on it I don’t think there is
20:51
time enough to give or develop present a
20:55
new cosmology here the application is
21:00
first of all that space has a cellular
21:03
structure and this means that the
21:07
existence of antimatter is not excluded
21:10
there are a number of very nice
21:13
arguments for against the attack the
21:17
existence of antimatter in the universe
21:20
but these are all based on a concept
21:24
which we know now is not valid so we
21:29
cannot exclude the existence of
21:31
antimatter and the universe may very
21:35
well be symmetric with regard to
21:37
ordinary matter and antimatter then
21:41
comes an analysis of the redshift the
21:46
redshift in demonstrates without any
21:51
question it must be a Doppler shift and
21:54
I think it is impossible to avoid that
21:57
the the redshift
22:01
demonstrates that the universe the or to
22:07
be more correct use the old term
22:09
meet a galaxy that means all the
22:12
galaxies we can observe it is a synonym
22:15
to what the Big Bang believers call the
22:18
universe
22:19
if you plot the redshift that is the
22:24
velocity of galaxies and here is the
22:28
sigh the distance to the galaxies you
22:31
get this famous Hubble diagram and
22:35
people conclude that this proves that
22:38
there is a linear relation between the
22:45
expansion and the distance this this and
22:51
that the deviations from the straight
22:55
line here is are due to observational
23:01
errors this may very well be so but it
23:06
is not necessary to make such a
23:07
conclusion if you take each individual
23:10
point in extrapolate backwards in time
23:14
you see here that this is now
23:18
and from here you extrapolate backwards
23:20
in time and then this is the distance
23:25
from the earth or in the reference
23:28
system you see that is do not
23:30
necessarily coincide in one point they
23:34
spread here over a large region and it
23:38
does not exclude that everything would
23:41
converge in one point but it does not
23:44
prove it it is it proves that the
23:50
emitter galaxy
23:51
at present is expanding and that it was
23:53
once about ten billion years ago one
23:58
tenth of the present size that is one
24:01
billion years ago
24:02
1 billion light years but this is not
24:06
proved at all furthermore it has been
24:12
discovered that space has a
24:16
as a hierarchal structure the hierarchal
24:21
model was introduced by Charlie a long
24:25
before the big bang round in the
24:28
beginning of this century and it said
24:31
that stars are aggregated to galaxies
24:35
galaxies to what we now should call
24:38
clusters of galaxies and clusters of
24:41
galaxies to super clusters and
24:43
superclusters to some larger units it is
24:47
if this hierarchical structure follows
24:50
general law then we can be we can
24:56
satisfy some conditions the Albert
24:59
objection and thus a legal objection to
25:03
infinite universe this was was not
25:12
believed in until 1972 popular
25:17
demonstrated he’s a very famous observer
25:20
that this really is true
25:22
the universe has the galaxies the
25:29
galaxies and so on are arranged into a
25:32
hierarchical structure and this is how
25:39
the Booker’s diagram looks actually it
25:44
is plotted in different coordinates this
25:46
is the size of a structure and this is
25:50
mass of it here you see that the stars
25:54
are are here they this limit which is
25:59
very important that is the the Swat
26:03
shield the Laplace what shield limit it
26:07
means actually that on the other side
26:09
appear we have black holes you see here
26:14
that starts go down and neutron stars
26:18
may approach this very limit rather much
26:22
but if we go out to galaxies and
26:25
clusters of galaxies and so on they are
26:27
very far
26:28
from the short Shield limit this is
26:31
actually given in escape velocity it’s
26:38
actually two orders of magnitude in
26:40
density here so they are four or five
26:42
orders of magnitude from the swati limit
26:47
it means that the general theory of
26:50
relativity comes in here as a correction
26:53
which is negligible ten to the minus
26:57
four or ten to the minus five as far out
27:00
as we know then if we extrapolate to the
27:04
meter galaxy using the same formalism it
27:08
comes here for orders of magnitude in
27:11
density from the sporty limit so the
27:16
hierarchal structure of space which
27:20
DeVoe Color introduced 1970 that is that
27:26
was not believed until in the end of the
27:31
of the 70s it was general Peebles and
27:36
collaborators make high highly
27:39
sophisticated statistical analysis and
27:42
did confirm this so you can say that the
27:45
hierarchal structure of space is now a
27:49
an observational ii confirmed structure
27:53
and there is a large void regions here
27:57
region here which makes it very unlikely
28:01
that space is is closed is closed which
28:08
it it should be if it is on the other
28:10
side of the laplace or the laplace
28:14
virtual limit i think this is
28:17
approaching its its end and this is the
28:23
sand reckoner which the which Archimedes
28:27
as as title for one of his most famous
28:36
books and if I should conclude this I
28:40
think that we should not take the
28:43
generally accepted Big Bang hypothesis
28:47
as as confirmed by observations instead
28:52
I should like to quote once again what
28:55
Professor Naugle said and I think that
28:58
space research has given us so much new
29:02
information about it about what the
29:06
space structures are like and it is as
29:10
far as I can see unavoidable that this
29:13
will shake the concepts of the basic
29:18
concepts of astrophysics in a rather
29:21
drastic way so if I should conclude this
29:26
by giving an advice to the 500 students
29:30
here it is that those of you are
29:33
interested in astrophysics should not
29:36
take the curriculum in the general
29:39
theory of relativity but instead a very
29:42
good course in modern plasma physics
29:45
thank you
29:56
you
29:56
[Applause]

7 thoughts on “Plasma Cosmology, Big Bang, Hannes Alfven. Nobel Prize Winner 1970. The Electric Universe.

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