— RealRLD (@rld_real_CPR) December 26, 2020
Charlie Rose: Judith Rodin is here. She has been president of the Rockefeller Foundation since 2005. Her tenure there is focused on programs that tackle the most pressing global challenges and disruptions of the 21st century. Her new book is called “The Resilience Dividend: Being strong in a world where things go wrong”. It argues that building resilience is an urgent social and economic issue. I am pleased to have her back at this table. Welcome.
00:24Judith Rodin: Thank you, Charlie. Great to be here again.
00:27Charlie Rose: I must say before the Rockefeller Fund, you were also president of the University of Pennsylvania and Yale as well.
00:33Judith Rodin: Yes.
00:34Charlie Rose: so you’ve spent a lifetime in academia as well as running the Rockefeller Foundation. What’s this about, “The Resilience Dividend?
00:44Judith Rodin: It’s based on the — really the realization that in the 21st century, crises may be the new normal. There actually isn’t a week that goes by that somewhere in the world there isn’t a violent storm, or a flood, or a cyber attack, civil unrest, a new epidemic, outbreak like ebola. And so those who are going to do best are those who are prepared for the worst, no matter what the worst may be. And often we’re just reacting and responding, and we’ve got to get ready. We’ve got to plan and prepare.
01:18Charlie Rose: Some say that crisis, as you suggest, is the new normal. I mean, there is a crisis aplenty. We look at climate change as one, global warming. We look at the kinds of things we’re now hearing, the fear of some kind of global epidemic. You look at scarcity of water. And there’s a whole range of issues that confront us now beyond the geopolitical issues.
01:48Judith Rodin: Well, they’re all folded in. In other words, many people will argue that wars over water are going to be the next big geopolitical issue. Our military is actually doing resilience planning. Secretary Hagel ordered the entire military to really look at the potential impact of food insecurity and water shortage and things that you never would have thought the U.S. military would need to be worrying about 50 years ago. Now we need to make the military have the capacity to plan and prepare for what kinds of disruptions.
02:23Charlie Rose: You talk about pre-disruptions (ph) — urbanization, climate change and globalization.
02:28Judith Rodin: It’s really the intersection of all three that makes us so vulnerable. Half the world’s population is now living in cities. That’s going to grow to 75 percent within the next 30 years. A lot of that will happen in some of the most vulnerable ecologies, that is vulnerable to climate change — Africa, South Asia, Southeast Asia. These cities don’t have the physical capacity, let alone the infrastructure to absorb that. Globalization affects every part of the world as rapidly we saw the floods in Bangkok took down entire global supply chains. We see ebola coming to th United States. Who would have thought things like that 50 years ago? And then climate change which is really destroying not only the environment but destroying the resilience of the infrastructure. We have a global initiative called “A Hundred Resilient Cities” and cities on six continents around the world are competing to become part of this network. Both Rome and Athens wrote about the effects of air quality, climate change traffic on their historic treasurers. So these things are all bumping into one another.
03:44Charlie Rose: What’s the best example of a potential disaster that was, you know, somehow prevented from escalating?
03:51Judith Rodin: I think of Boston and the Boston Marathon. Obviously, it was a disaster, three people died and a lot of people were hurt, but Boston had spent years before that practicing for any kind of disruption — for terrorism, for a nor’easter, a hurricane, for any kind of civil unrest. And, so, they had the complete play book worked out. They knew who the first response police authority would be. They decided it would be the FBI. They decided that Governor Patrick, no matter where it would occur in Massachusetts would be the chief spokesperson. They had a full medical responder plan. And so, in Boston, nobody who got to a hospital died. That’s the first time with something of that magnitude that they could claim that. Nonetheless, Boston applied in this round for “A Hundred Resilient Cities”. We selected them, and Mayor Walsh talked about the new things he’s worried about, will be the 50th anniversary of the court-ordered busing. He’s worried about inequality, about racial issues, about economic disparity. So this is also about how you plan for and respond to the sobering stresses not just the shocks.
05:07Charlie Rose: One of cities that I’m interested in going to soon is Medellin, Colombia. Tell me about what’s happened there. What kind of transformation has taken place?
05:18Judith Rodin: It’s the most remarkable story. Drug capital of the world, human trafficking, all the things we knew about. A group of community citizens, business leaders, two successive mayors recognized that perhaps the people were really vulnerable to all of this, being drug mules and being trafficked, because they are so physically disconnected. The geography of Medellin is that all of the economic activity is on the floor and all of the middle class and rich people are on the floor of the valley. And all of the barrios and the poor people are disconnected in the hills. So after trying policing and military intervention to try to stop the trafficking, they built a new transportation system. So a metro system that goes along the floor and then escalators and gondolas going up into the hills.
06:07Charlie Rose: Yes. I’ve interviewed the mayor.
06:12Judith Rodin: Charlie, the stops have healthcare clinics and after-school programs and integrated into the transportation and the people are decorating the hills and their houses. Crime is way down, and tourism up and it’s a real success.06:26Charlie Rose: So what’s the mandate of “Hundred Resilient Cities” program?
06:31Judith Rodin: The mandate is to help those cities prepare for not the last stress, not the last shock, but anything that may confront them. And so they get a chief resilience officer which is an innovation. The chief resilience officers are connected now around the world, sharing best practices. And they get access to a whole suite of goods and services that the private sector is providing. So Palantir doing big data analytics
–06:58Charlie Rose: Oh, yes, right.
07:00Judith Rodin: — Cisco, Microsoft, Swiss Re (ph) creating municipal catastrophe bonds for the cities, new forms of municipal financing available for these cities. So they’ll work on physical infrastructure but Charlie they’re also going to work on social infrastructure. So St. Louis is just a new city. They just were selected in this round.
07:18Charlie Rose: And why did you select St. Louis?
07:20Judith Rodin: We selected them because they had the most honest and compelling application about Ferguson, and about social unrest, and about economic disparity.
07:28Charlie Rose: And when did you select them?
07:29Judith Rodin: We selected them three weeks ago.
07:31Charlie Rose: OK. So this was after Ferguson?
07:35Judith Rodin: Yes. And Mayor Slay and the rest of the people because this is also civil society and business; it isn’t just government that applies for this. In fact, if they don’t talk about how to engage the communities, whether their problem is hurricane and earthquake or social unrest, they don’t get selected for this. This is a bottom’s up as well as a top-down approach.
07:56Charlie Rose: So what’s happening at the foundation?
07:59Judith Rodin: The foundation is in great shape. We’re excited about all of the resilience work and we’re working on another equally important goal which is more economic inclusion and more inclusive prosperity and clearly the two are interconnected. You know, you think about the two blackouts New York had, ’77 and 2003. In ’77, it was the summer of Son of Sam. We were in an economic sort of pit in New York. White flight was occurring. And with the blackout, there was violence and looting and all kinds of unrest. 2003, after 9/11, a lot of work on building back communities, a lot of preparation and planning on evacuation, no matter what the next thing would be. 23,000 lights out — remember those orderly pictures of people going across the Brooklyn Bridge? It’s an amazing difference.
08:53Charlie Rose: I see here the name of somebody I know. Alex Carp who has participated — he’d been on the show and participated in conferences with me. He says “Judith Rodin is a world class entrepreneurial philanthropist. In “The Resilience Dividend” she brings her life’s work to the bear on the subject drawing on her deep and personal experience from around the world. She uses every tool available including the world’s most advanced technologies to understand the urban terrain and to deploy real world solutions all with the goal of saving and improving human lives.” He’s the CEO of Palantir. There seems to me, I am fascinated by the idea, and I’ve had Larry Page express this. How do we enlist corporate America or corporate global in terms of dealing with the kinds of issues because of the human resources that they have within their institutions? Is that public-private an appealing idea to the Rockefeller Foundation?
09:54Judith Rodin: Absolutely, and we’re working very hard to make sure that that kind of public-private partnership occurs. Let me give you San Francisco as an example because it’s a wonderful one. San Francisco has brought all of their businesses together in something they call The Life Lines Council in preparation for any kind of disaster. So PG&E, Comcast, Uber, Lift, AirBNB — after all they represent excess capacity which is a resilience characteristic. And together rather than business doing their own planning and government doing its own plans, communities doing — they have a completely integrated way to secure the lifelines of the city. So businesses are critical, they’re making their own plans. They’re picking cities to locate in because of those cities being resilient. Deutsche Bank, for example, chose Poona in India for a new operation center because they became resilient looking at all of their telecommunications and utility, their education, their community. And they beat out every other Indian city to get a Deutsche Bank Center because they were more resilient.
11:06Charlie Rose: What are you reading these days?
11:10Judith Rodin: I just finished “Euphoria” which I loved. I’m a psychologist so the lives of anthropologists and my first year as a graduate at Columbia, I took an anthropology course from Margaret Mead. And she was so grand. She would walk down the center of the aisle with her graduate students trailing behind her carrying her briefcase and her walking stick. And so reading the story of young Margaret and her love and her life is really quite extraordinary.
11:37Charlie Rose: This book is called “The Resilience Dividend, by Judith Rodin, who — also subtitled “Being strong in a world where things go wrong”. This picture is a cover story of where things went wrong in Galveston, Texas and demolished. What year was that?11:51Judith Rodin: 2011. Last house — only house standing. That’s a real picture.
11:58Charlie Rose: How does one house stand?
12:00Judith Rodin: The right roof, the right pilings — resilience. This is hardened with structure.
12:05Charlie Rose: This is what you can do.
12:07Judith Rodin: Yes.
12:09Charlie Rose: And most of the cities devastated by Sandy are doing that, aren’t they? Aren’t they approaching with a certain sense of we have to be much more resilient in terms of what we rebuild if we are forced to rebuild.
12:17Judith Rodin: Yes, Charlie. And not only what we rebuild but how we rebuild. The idea of the dividend is to get more bang for that buck so that you’re not making a single investment and you’re doing things that make returns in the good times not only helping recovery in the bad times. So let’s take Hoboken for example. Hoboken floods even when there isn’t a hurricane. They completely lack real green recreational space and they needed more parking. As a result of the post-Sandy recovery work and competition called “Rebuild by Design” that we did with HUD, Housing and Urban Development, Hoboken proposed underground parking, engineered to be water overflow containers in times of flooding with surface green recreational space. So one investment, three bangs for the buck — that’s the resilience dividend.
13:07Charlie Rose: It’s good to see you.
13:10Judith Rodin: Great to be
“HHS Protect Now” and privacy concerns (since 2020)
This section may be unbalanced towards certain viewpoints. Please improve the article or discuss the issue on the talk page. (December 2020)
The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has prompted tech companies to respond to growing demand for citizen information from governments in order to conduct contact tracing and to analyze patient data. Consequently, data collection companies, such as Palantir, have been contracted to partake in pandemic data collection practices. Palantir’s participation in “HHS Protect Now”, a program launched by the United States Department of Health and Human Services to track the spread of the coronavirus, has attracted criticism from American lawmakers.
Palantir’s participation in COVID-19 response projects re-ignited debates over its controversial involvement in tracking undocumented immigrants, especially its alleged effects on digital inequality and potential restrictions on online freedoms. Critics allege that confidential data acquired by HHS could be exploited by other federal agencies in unregulated and potentially harmful ways. Alternative proposals request greater transparency in the process to determine whether any of the data aggregated would be shared with the US Immigration and Customs Enforcement to single out undocumented immigrants.
Project Maven (since 2018)
After Google had issues with employees walking out concerning the new contract in partnership with the Pentagon, Project Maven, a secret artificial intelligence program aimed at the unmanned operation of aerial vehicles was taken up by Palantir. Artificial intelligence is controversial and its ongoing and further potential application and use in military settings is alarming to many. Palantir aims at aligning themselves with liberal western democracies to combat potential negative affects of the use of this technology.
Government by algorithm
The Gates Foundation
Shah joined the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation in 2001, serving in a range of leadership roles including Director of Agricultural Development, Director of Strategic Opportunities, Deputy Director of Policy and Finance and Chief Economist. During his time at Gates, he led the launch of the Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa, an alliance with the Rockefeller Foundation that focuses on addressing the specific environmental and agricultural needs of African farmers.
Shah was also responsible for developing the International Finance Facility for Immunization, which raised more than $5 billion for the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI). IFFI has been recognized as an example of the power of innovative financing for global development.
United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)
Shah was nominated by President Obama to serve as Chief Scientist and Undersecretary of Agriculture for Research, Education and Economics on April 17, 2009. He was confirmed unanimously by the United States Senate on May 12, 2009. Shah was responsible for management and oversight of the U.S. Government’s Agricultural Research Service, Economic Research Service, Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service, National Agricultural Statistics Service. Shah also led the creation and launch of the National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA) to bring peer-reviewed scientific processes to agricultural research.
United Nations High-Level Panel on the Global Response to Health Crises
In 2015, Shah was one of six global leaders appointed by United Nations Secretary General Ban Ki-moon to review the world’s capacity to prepare for and respond to global pandemic threats. The panel presented their findings and recommendations to the Secretary General, UN General Assembly, and the G8 and G20 groups of leaders.
In 2015, Shah delivered a TED talk Data-Driven Compassion: What Haiti, Somalia & Ebola Teach Us at the inaugural TEDxPennsylvaniaAvenue, which was designed “to give several of the world’s most innovative thinkers and doers the opportunity to share their ground-breaking ideas with bipartisan leaders in our nation’s capital.”
Moneyball for Government
Shah co-authored a bipartisan chapter in the second edition of the book, Moneyball for Government, with Michael Gerson, former Assistant to the President for Policy & Strategic Planning under President George W. Bush. The chapter, titled “Foreign Assistance and the Revolution of Rigor”, calls for data and evidence to drive U.S. foreign aid and provides a roadmap for improving and sustaining foreign assistance programs.
Shah and Gerson also co-authored an op-ed in the Washington Post on Zika.
The Rockefeller Foundation
On January 5, 2017, the Board of Trustees announced the unanimous selection of Shah to serve as the Thirteenth President of The Rockefeller Foundation. He assumed office on March 1, 2017, succeeding Dr. Judith Rodin who had served as president for nearly twelve years. Shah is the first-ever Indian-American to serve as president of the foundation.
Awards and recognition
Shah has been the recipient of numerous awards including the Secretary of State’s Distinguished Service Award (2013); the Pravasi Bharatiya Samman Award, the highest official honor for non-resident Indian, awarded by the President of India (2011); the U.S. Global Leadership Council Tribute Award (2014); the Gene White Lifetime Achievement Award for Child Nutrition (2014); the Young Global Leader, World Economic Forum (2007); The 2010 Joseph Wharton Award for Social Impact  Tufts University (2014); and The University of Virginia Thomas Jefferson Foundation Medal in Citizen Leadership (2020) 
Shah has been awarded numerous honorary degrees including American University, Doctor of International Affairs (2012), Tuskegee University, Doctor of Science (2012), and Colby College, Doctor of Laws (2011).
Shah was also recognized as one of Fortune Magazine’s 40 under 40 in 2011 and was India Abroad’s Person of the Year in 2012.
Board and affiliations
Shah currently sits on numerous boards including Trustee of the Rockefeller Foundation, International Rescue Committee, Premise Data, Chicago Council on Global Affairs, Results for America, Trilateral Commission the Atlantic Council and The National Geographic Society. He is also a member on the Council of Foreign Relations  On January 4, 2017 he was elected President of the Rockefeller Foundation, the first Indian-American to hold that post.
Past Board memberships including Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC), Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC), Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA), Seattle Public Library, Seattle Community College District, City Year Seattle and Project Impact for South Asian Americans.
Shah is married to Shivam Mallick Shah. They have three children and currently reside in Washington, D.C.
Keeping America's schools closed is costing our economy $700 billion. So $40 billion in costs to get schools open safely is a very wise return on investment. I talked about the new #Covid19 variant and our @rockefellerfdn testing plan with @mariabartiromo on @foxbusiness.
— Dr. Rajiv J. Shah (@rajshah) December 22, 2020
International Finance Facility for Immunisation
The first IFF is the “International Finance Facility for Immunisation” (IFFIm), begun by France, the UK and other European countries in 2006. IFFIm was initiated to rapidly accelerate the availability and predictability of funds for immunisation. IFFIm sells bonds – officially called Vaccine Bonds – on the capital markets to raise funds for the GAVI Alliance, a public-private partnership which works to save children’s lives and protect people’s health by increasing access to vaccination in developing countries. IFFIm is, as of July 2012, backed by the United Kingdom, France, Italy, Spain, the Netherlands, Sweden, Norway, Australia and South Africa. Brazil has pledged to become IFFIm’s tenth donor.
To date, IFFIm has leveraged US$6.3 billion in donor pledges to raise US$4.5 billion (July 2013) on the world’s capital markets from both retail and institutional investors. The World Bank is IFFIm’s treasury manager. Since IFFIm began in 2006, IFFIm funding has allowed GAVI to nearly double its expenditures in health programmes. US$2.2 billion in IFFIm funding already has been disbursed to support vaccine purchase and delivery for 70 developing countries.
Health care consulting firm HLSP issued an independent evaluation of IFFIm in July 2011 that strongly commended its financial model and health care results. The report noted that not only do IFFIm-funded investments generate “extremely good returns,” but also that it likely helped GAVI save more than 2.1 million lives. The report focused on IFFIm’s cost-effectiveness, particularly the benefits of frontloading and its impact on creating large-scale immunity.
IFFIm provides certainty of funding for both GAVI and recipient countries, aiding long-term planning and short-term needs. For example, US$545 million in proceeds from IFFIm funded tactical purchases that helped prevent 1.4 million deaths from yellow fever, polio and measles. Dedicated IFFIm funding also played a significant role in combating 600,000 cases of meningitis and maternal and neonatal tetanus.
In addition, IFFIm helped GAVI fund breakthrough vaccines quickly and securely. IFFIm financed more than 90% of the guaranteed payment to UNICEF for initial doses of a pentavalent vaccine which immunises against five infectious diseases: diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) and hepatitis B. GAVI could not have made that commitment and upfront cash payment without IFFIm.
HM Treasury: International Finance Facility
International Finance Facility for Immunisation
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