The Housing Crisis, Building and the four Causes according to Aristotle. #VorsprungdurchVerrymatix #offsite #mmc #HousingForAll #Volumetric #housingdeliveryevolved #rethinkmodular #offsiteconstruction #BOPAS #buildbuildbuild #DfMA #BIM #smarttech #DaveCooperLive @SCABALnet @Hawkins_Brown @akoustudios @Contrast_Design @snaploader @rld_real_CPR @DavidParsleyPW @financialeyes @GenRentBook @Virtual_Viewing



http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/physics.2.ii.html
Part 2

We have distinguished, then, the different ways in which the term ‘nature’ is used.

The next point to consider is how the mathematician differs from the physicist. Obviously physical bodies contain surfaces and volumes, lines and points, and these are the subject-matter of mathematics.

If we look at the ancients, physics would to be concerned with the matter. (It was only very slightly that Empedocles and Democritus touched on the forms and the essence.)

But if on the other hand art imitates nature, and it is the part of the same discipline to know the form and the matter up to a point (e.g. the doctor has a knowledge of health and also of bile and phlegm, in which health is realized, and the builder both of the form of the house and of the matter, namely that it is bricks and beams, and so forth): if this is so, it would be the part of physics also to know nature in both its senses.

Such then is the number and nature of the kinds of cause.
Now the modes of causation are many, though when brought under heads they too can be reduced in number. For ’cause’ is used in many senses and even within the same kind one may be prior to another (e.g. the doctor and the expert are causes of health, the relation 2:1 and number of the octave), and always what is inclusive to what is particular. Another mode of causation is the incidental and its genera, e.g. in one way ‘Polyclitus’, in another ‘sculptor’ is the cause of a statue, because ‘being Polyclitus’ and ‘sculptor’ are incidentally conjoined. Also the classes in which the incidental attribute is included; thus ‘a man’ could be said to be the cause of a statue or, generally, ‘a living creature’. An incidental attribute too may be more or less remote, e.g. suppose that ‘a pale man’ or ‘a musical man’ were said to be the cause of the statue.

All causes, both proper and incidental, may be spoken of either as potential or as actual; e.g. the cause of a house being built is either ‘house-builder’ or ‘house-builder building’.

Similar distinctions can be made in the things of which the causes are causes, e.g. of ‘this statue’ or of ‘statue’ or of ‘image’ generally, of ‘this bronze’ or of ‘bronze’ or of ‘material’ generally. So too with the incidental attributes. Again we may use a complex expression for either and say, e.g. neither ‘Polyclitus’ nor ‘sculptor’ but ‘Polyclitus, sculptor’.

All these various uses, however, come to six in number, under each of which again the usage is twofold. Cause means either what is particular or a genus, or an incidental attribute or a genus of that, and these either as a complex or each by itself; and all six either as actual or as potential. The difference is this much, that causes which are actually at work and particular exist and cease to exist simultaneously with their effect, e.g. this healing person with this being-healed person and that house-building man with that being-built house; but this is not always true of potential causes–the house and the housebuilder do not pass away simultaneously.

In investigating the cause of each thing it is always necessary to seek what is most precise (as also in other things): thus man builds because he is a builder, and a builder builds in virtue of his art of building. This last cause then is prior: and so generally.

Further, generic effects should be assigned to generic causes, particular effects to particular causes, e.g. statue to sculptor, this statue to this sculptor; and powers are relative to possible effects, actually operating causes to things which are actually being effected.

This must suffice for our account of the number of causes and the modes of causation.

Hence it is clear that even among the things which are outside the necessary and the normal, there are some in connexion withwhich the phrase ‘for the sake of something’ is applicable. (Events that are for the sake of something include whatever may be done as a result of thought or of nature.) Things of this kind, then, when they come to pass incidental are said to be ‘by chance’. For just as a thing is something either in virtue of itself or incidentally, so may it be a cause. For instance, the housebuilding faculty is in virtue of itself the cause of a house, whereas the pale or the musical is the incidental cause. That which is per se cause of the effect is determinate, but the incidental cause is indeterminable, for the possible attributes of an individual are innumerable. To resume then; when a thing of this kind comes to pass among events which are for the sake of something, it is said to be spontaneous or by chance. (The distinction between the two must be made later-for the present it is sufficient if it is plain that both are in the sphere of things done for the sake of something.)

It is necessary, no doubt, that the causes of what comes to pass by chance be indefinite; and that is why chance is supposed to belong to the class of the indefinite and to be inscrutable to man, and why it might be thought that, in a way, nothing occurs by chance. For all these statements are correct, because they are well grounded. Things do, in a way, occur by chance, for they occur incidentally and chance is an incidental cause. But strictly it is not the cause-without qualification-of anything; for instance, a housebuilder is the cause of a house; incidentally, a fluteplayer may be so.

It is absurd to suppose that purpose is not present because we do not observe the agent deliberating. Art does not deliberate. If the ship-building art were in the wood, it would produce the same results by nature. If, therefore, purpose is present in art, it is present also in nature. The best illustration is a doctor doctoring himself: nature is like that.

It is plain then that nature is a cause, a cause that operates for a purpose.

#Wasssupppp Putting it all together, Energy, Debt, War, Sanctions, Elitism, Money Money Money. #Trump #Hall #EROI #EmboddiedEnergy #CircularEconomy

http://www.realrld.com/blog/placemaking-authentically-seeking-the-key-to-harmony-notebook

A Well Dressed Supply Side Lie chased by Naked Truth.full spectrum take on the Global Modular MMC Off Site industry #VorsprungdurchVerrymatix #offsite #mmc #HousingForAll #Volumetric #housingdeliveryevolved #rethinkmodular #offsiteconstruction #BOPAS #buildbuildbuild #DfMA #BIM #smarttech #DaveCooperLive @SCABALnet @Hawkins_Brown @akoustudios @Contrast_Design @snaploader @rld_real_CPR @DavidParsleyPW @financialeyes @GenRentBook @Virtual_Viewing

There are several key points that have emerged as clear points of difference between the prevailing Institutional/NGO/ Public Sector line , The COnstruction Handbook, The Farmer review and the Lean Construction explication in the DFMA Learnings publication that followed John Prescotts 60k House Competition. These Points are all taken on board unquestioned in the Modulous video which I analysed extensively for that reason.

Points.
1. affordability and Allocation problem. The Final Cause. Next Cause and Effect?
a. Finance !
b. Land !
c. Volume House building and Finance Lobby !The Efficient Cause
2. Customer and Community Consultation this is a Human processes ! The Planning System and regulatory framework The Formal Cause.
3. Integration of Both Private and Public Spaces. !
4. Fleet Sales and Private Sales !
5. The Failure of Lean Build To Order not Build to sell !The Material Cause.
1.5. The collapse in home ownership was mainly due to withdrawal of mortgage finance from FTBs, which suggests policymakers face a trade-off. This paper has argued that, while high house prices affect home ownership, the dominant driver of its recent collapse was a sudden stop on mortgage lending to FTBs. And in keeping with that explanation, the recent return to a more normal pace of FTB lending has seen the home ownership rate stabilise and perhaps begin to recover. Ian Mulheirn August 2019

We have a crisis of affordability and allocation. People are borrowing eight times
their income to get on the housing ladder yet there are 700,000 derelict houses, 500,000//theecologist.org/2008/aug/02/radical-carbon-tax-reform(2008)
Dr Adrian Wrigley 2008.

Homeatics , The Vanguard Method for Lean. A Philosophy
http://www.realrld.com/blog/homeatics-the-vanguard-method-for-lean-a-philosophy
The Katerra Post Mortem. The Unicorn is Dead, Long Live the Unicorn
https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/katerra-post-mortem-unicorn-dead-long-live-roger-lewis/

QED.

Author: rogerglewis

https://about.me/rogerlewis Looking for a Job either in Sweden or UK. Freelance, startups, will turń my hand to anything.