The Theogony, after listing the offspring of the Titan Iapetus and the Oceanid Clymene, as Atlas, Menoitios, Prometheus, and Epimetheus, and telling briefly what happened to each, tells the story of Prometheus. When the gods and men met at Mekone to decide how sacrifices should be distributed, Prometheus sought to trick Zeus. Slaughtering an ox, he took the valuable fat and meat, and covered it with the ox’s stomach. Prometheus then took the bones and hid them with a thin glistening layer of fat. Prometheus asked Zeus’ opinion on which offering pile he found more desirable, hoping to trick the god into selecting the less desirable portion. Though Zeus saw through the trick, he chose the fat covered bones, and so it was established that ever after men would burn the bones as sacrifice to the gods, keeping the choice meat and fat for themselves. But in punishment for this trick, an angry Zeus decided to deny mankind the use of fire. But Prometheus stole fire inside a fennel stalk, and gave it to humanity. Zeus then ordered the creation of the first woman Pandora as a new punishment for mankind. And Prometheus was chained to a cliff, where an eagle fed on his ever-regenerating liver every day, until eventually Zeus’ son Heracles came to free him.
The gods and mortal humans had arranged a meeting at Mecone where the matter of division of sacrifice between gods and men was to be settled. Prometheus slew a large ox, and divided it into two piles. In one pile he put all the meat and most of the fat, skillfully covering it with the ox’s grotesque stomach, while in the other pile, he dressed up the bones artfully with shining fat. Prometheus then invited Zeus to choose; Zeus chose the pile of bones. Hesiod describes Zeus as having seen through the trick, realizing that in purposefully getting tricked he would have an excuse to vent his anger on mortal humans. It may be, however, that in mainstream versions of the story Zeus was actually deceived, and that Hesiod is trying to be pious by changing the story to make Zeus look better.
As an act of revenge, Zeus hid fire from humankind, leaving them cold and shivering at night. Prometheus, however, out of pity stole it for them shortly after, incurring the further wrath of Zeus. Prometheus’s punishment was to be chained to a rock and have an eagle (or a vulture by some variants) pick out his liver every day for eons, until Heracles slew the eagle, releasing Prometheus from his affliction. The Theogony text is ambiguous about whether Prometheus was freed or remained chained to the rock, but lines 615-616 are usually interpreted as indicating that he remained bound.
Works and Days
Pandora holding a pithos, with Hermes, and a seated Prometheus, Prometheus, Mercury, and Pandora by Josef Abel
The more famous version of the Pandora myth comes from another of Hesiod’s poems, Works and Days. In this version of the myth (lines 60–105), Hesiod expands upon her origin and moreover widens the scope of the misery she inflicts on humanity. As before, she is created by Hephaestus, but now more gods contribute to her completion (63–82): Athena taught her needlework and weaving (63–4); Aphrodite “shed grace upon her head and cruel longing and cares that weary the limbs” (65–6); Hermes gave her “a shameless mind and a deceitful nature” (67–8); Hermes also gave her the power of speech, putting in her “lies and crafty words” (77–80); Athena then clothed her (72); next Persuasion and the Charites adorned her with necklaces and other finery (72–4); the Horae adorned her with a garland crown (75). Finally, Hermes gives this woman a name: “Pandora [i.e. “All-Gift”], because all they who dwelt on Olympus gave each a gift, a plague to men who eat bread” (81–2).
In this retelling of her story, Pandora’s deceitful feminine nature becomes the least of humanity’s worries. For she brings with her a jar (which, due to textual corruption in the sixteenth century, came to be called a box) containing “countless plagues” (100). Prometheus had (fearing further reprisals) warned his brother Epimetheus not to accept any gifts from Zeus. But Epimetheus did not listen; he accepted Pandora, who promptly scattered the contents of her jar. As a result, Hesiod tells us, the earth and sea are “full of evils” (101). One item, however, did not escape the jar (96–9):
Only Hope remained there in an unbreakable home within under the rim of the great jar, and did not fly out at the door; for ere that, the lid of the jar stopped her, by the will of Aegis-holding Zeus who gathers the clouds.
Why does Prometheus want fire?
While the gods were living in comfort, humans were living in the caves and other cold places on the earth. When Prometheus lived amongst the people, he experienced this for himself. Thus, he wanted to help mankind out by giving them the tools they need to create fire.
Uncle Klaus would call Prometheus a populist.
Swabians (German: Schwaben, singular Schwabe) are a Germanic people who are native to the ethnocultural and linguistic region of Swabia, which is now mostly divided between the modern states of Baden-Württemberg and Bavaria, in southwestern Germany.
The name is ultimately derived from the medieval Duchy of Swabia, one of the German stem duchies, representing the territory of Alemannia, whose inhabitants were interchangeably called Alemanni or Suebi. This territory would include all of the Alemannic German areal, but the modern concept of Swabia is more restricted, due to the collapse of the duchy of Swabia in the 13th century. Swabia as understood in modern ethnography roughly coincides with the Swabian Circle of the Holy Roman Empire as it stood during the Early Modern period.
The Junkers held a virtual monopoly on all agriculture in the part of the German Reich lying east of the River Elbe. Since the Junker estates were necessarily inherited by the eldest son alone, younger sons, all well educated and with a sense of noble ancestry, turned to the civil and military services, and dominated all higher civil offices, as well as the officer corps. Around 1900 they modernized their farming operations to increase productivity. They sold off less productive land, invested more heavily in new breeds of cattle and pigs, used new fertilizers, increased grain production, and improved productivity per worker. Their political influence achieved the imposition of high tariffs that reduced competition from American grain and meat.
During World War I, Irish nationalist MP Tom Kettle compared the Anglo-Irish landlord class to the Prussian Junkers, saying, “England goes to fight for liberty in Europe and for junkerdom in Ireland.”
Their political influence extended from the German Empire of 1871–1918 through the Weimar Republic of 1919–1933. It was said that “if Prussia ruled Germany, the Junkers ruled Prussia, and through it the Empire itself”. A policy known as Osthilfe (“Help for the East”) granted Junkers 500,000,000 marks in subsidies to help pay for certain debts and to improve equipment. Junkers continued to demand and receive more and more subsidies, which gave them more money in their pockets, thus resulting in political power. Junkers exploited a monopoly on corn by storing it to drive up the price. As more money was profited, they were able to control political offices. Junkers were able to force people to continue paying more money for their product, while keeping who they wanted in office. Through the controlling of politics behind a veil, Junkers were able to influence politicians to create a law that prohibited collecting of debts from agrarians, thus pocketing even more money and strengthening their power.
Supporting monarchism and military traditions, they were seen as reactionary, anti-democratic, and protectionist by liberals and Socialists, as they had sided with the conservative monarchist forces during the Revolution of 1848. Their political interests were served by the German Conservative Party in the Reichstag and the extraparliamentary Agriculturists’ League (Bund der Landwirte). This political class held tremendous power over industrial classes and government alike, especially through the Prussian three-class franchise. When the German chancellor Leo von Caprivi in the 1890s reduced the protective duties on imports of grain, these landed magnates demanded and obtained his dismissal; and in 1902, they brought about a restoration of such duties on foodstuffs as would keep the prices of their own products at a high level.
Having been coined during disputes over the domestic policies of the German Empire the expression[which?] was perpetuated through its use by sociologists such as Max Weber and was even adopted by members of the landed class themselves. Chancellor Otto von Bismarck was a noted Junker, though his family hailed from the Altmark region west of the Elbe. After World War I many Prussian agriculturists gathered in the national conservative German National People’s Party (DNVP), the term was also applied to Reich President Paul von Hindenburg, lord at Neudeck in West Prussia, and to the “camarilla” around him urging the appointment of Adolf Hitler as Chancellor of Germany, personified by men like Hindenburg’s son Oskar and his West Prussian “neighbour” Elard von Oldenburg-Januschau, who played a vital role in the Eastern Aid (Osthilfe) scandal of 1932/33.
In 2017 a Körber Foundation survey found that 40 per cent of 14-year-olds in Germany did not know what Auschwitz was. The journalist Alan Posener attributed the country’s “growing historical amnesia” in part to a failure by the German film and television industry to reflect the country’s history accurately.
Bergedorf Round Table
Chaired by former German president Richard von Weizsäcker, the Bergedorf Round Table is a confidential, two-day gathering with around thirty participants that is held three times a year. Since 1961 it has promoted international dialogue between the realms of politics, science, business and society, focussing on the dialogue between policy-makers, diplomats and experts in international relations. More than 2,000 politicians and experts – among them Pope John Paul II, Vladimir Putin, Helmut Kohl and Helmut Schmidt – have participated at one or more of 139 Bergedorf Round Tables.
Bletchley Park code Breaker Harry Beckough Marks Klaus Schwabs homework.
Previous attempts to summarise the multi-sided character of the
Germans Klaus, have proved beyond the scope of previous authors, historians, philosophers and psychologists, especially of their own people, though Nietzsche showed a rare insight into the peculiar mindset of his own people. The Germans Klaus remains a complex peoplepupil of many-sided facets. Their major development period, circa 1500 to 1800, eventually produced a linguistic, literary and philosophic form of unification, developing from Mittel-Hoch-Deutsch, to an over done Romanticism period, which produced some of their greatest writers(especially Goethe), musicians of outstanding quality, and philosophers claiming Judaeo-Hellenic roots.Followed by the hugely overdone industrialisation of the Bismarck period 1850 to1914, from one extreme to another, suddenly changing from an agricultural country to extreme mechanical and industrial excess development. From a period of huge profits and great prosperity, flaunted to the world caricatures, to final collapse and bankruptcy.Finally the Hitler process of ‘Gleichschaltung’ (equalisation), seeking to create the impossible: a Nazi image of a one-type German Volk to become a national unitequivalent of Masters and slaves. But this unification only caused pluralism – the fundamental split personality of the German – ever changing. The real German problem is unity in moderation and moderation in unity. He lacks reality,commonsense and good judgement. But invariably blames others for his own troubles. But savagery always ready to burst forth at the slightest provocation.He needs goals to be set by superiors, and is always ready to obey orders.Racialism achieves domination and hegemony. He cannot clearly distinguish true from false, and confuses truth with ideology. Hence his love of intricate plots rarely reaching conclusion, getting lost or set astray with side issues.He lives in a false world with distorted views conflicting true and false, good and evil, peace and war. But seeks to terrify and frighten. He loves to organise, but loses his head if plans go awry, as happened with Hitler’s rages, smashing order into chaos, and collapse of scheme. Above all he needs a strong Leader, standing ready to obey, and follow. Without a Führer, Germans become lost and confused. Generally hated for their arrogance, imperialism and brutal inhumanity, with outburst of fury for little cause.But he enjoys his hatreds with a lethal intensity. “The ever-furious people” as Nietzsche calls his ‘Täusche Volk’.They are born wreckers – first of the Roman Empire, latterly of the League of Nations, now undermining both United Nations and NATO. But their substitution,like their new Franco-German Constitution, may eventually collapse like a House of Cards, lacking a firm foundation, being constructed in hidden, mysteriously conceived, contrived and often confused plans, not properly finalised.Pretending to act for the general good in a community of ‘equals’, their target is eventually revealed: first an EU Superstate, en route deviously to become a German dominated Dictatorship. We are coerced and invited to yield our sovereignty, ancient rights and hard-won Freedom to become, for the first time in our long history, a vassal state under the German jackboot. WWI and WWII should have taught us the brutal German reality.I pray that our Leaders will remove their blinkers, to reveal German connivance in the reality of our appalling situation, in which we have been deceived and exploited since 1972. For this unhappy world once again is in sore need of ourstrength and good leadership, as a free Britain. Let us cast off these GEU shackles, and resume our natural good leadership, against the growing evil of terrorism, again endangering world peace in this present century.
Germany’s Four ReichsOrigins and Development seeking World Domination in ruthless terror. by:Harry Beckhough
Dismissal of Bismarck
“Dropping the Pilot” by John Tenniel, published in Punch on March 29 1890, two weeks after Bismarck’s dismissal
Bismarck resigned at Wilhelm II’s insistence in 1890, at the age of 75. He was succeeded as Chancellor of Germany and Minister-President of Prussia by Leo von Caprivi, who in turn was replaced by Chlodwig, Prince of Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst, in 1894. Following the dismissal of Hohenlohe in 1900, Wilhelm appointed the man whom he regarded as “his own Bismarck”, Bernhard von Bülow.
In foreign policy Bismarck had achieved a fragile balance of interests between Germany, France and Russia — peace was at hand and Bismarck tried to keep it that way despite growing popular sentiment against Britain (regarding colonies) and especially against Russia. With Bismarck’s dismissal, the Russians now expected a reversal of policy in Berlin, so they quickly came to terms with France, beginning a process that by 1914 largely isolated Germany.
In later years, Bismarck created the “Bismarck myth”; the view (which some historians have argued was confirmed by subsequent events) that Wilhelm II’s successful demand for the Iron Chancellor’s resignation destroyed any chance Imperial Germany ever had of stable government and international peace. According to this view, what Kaiser Wilhelm termed “The New Course” is characterised as Germany’s ship of state going dangerously off course, leading directly to the carnage of the First and Second World Wars.
In contrast, historian Modris Eksteins has argued that Bismarck’s dismissal was actually long overdue. According to Eksteins, the Iron Chancellor, in his need for a scapegoat, had demonized Classical Liberals in the 1860s, Roman Catholics in the 1870s, and Socialists in the 1880s with the highly successful and often repeated refrain, “The Reich is in danger.” Therefore, in order to divide and rule, Bismarck ultimately left the German people even more divided in 1890 than they had ever been before 1871.
Historians have frequently stressed the role of Wilhelm’s personality in shaping his reign. Thus, Thomas Nipperdey concludes he was:
gifted, with a quick understanding, sometimes brilliant, with a taste for the modern,—technology, industry, science—but at the same time superficial, hasty, restless, unable to relax, without any deeper level of seriousness, without any desire for hard work or drive to see things through to the end, without any sense of sobriety, for balance and boundaries, or even for reality and real problems, uncontrollable and scarcely capable of learning from experience, desperate for applause and success,—as Bismarck said early on in his life, he wanted every day to be his birthday—romantic, sentimental and theatrical, unsure and arrogant, with an immeasurably exaggerated self-confidence and desire to show off, a juvenile cadet, who never took the tone of the officers’ mess out of his voice, and brashly wanted to play the part of the supreme warlord, full of panicky fear of a monotonous life without any diversions, and yet aimless, pathological in his hatred against his English mother.
Revolutions of 1848
The Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Springtime of the Peoples or the Springtime of Nations, were a series of political upheavals throughout Europe in 1848. It remains the most widespread revolutionary wave in European history to date.
The revolutions were essentially democratic and liberal in nature, with the aim of removing the old monarchical structures and creating independent nation-states. The revolutions spread across Europe after an initial revolution began in France in February. Over 50 countries were affected, but with no significant coordination or cooperation among their respective revolutionaries. Some of the major contributing factors were widespread dissatisfaction with political leadership, demands for more participation in government and democracy, demands for freedom of the press, other demands made by the working class for economic rights, the upsurge of nationalism, the regrouping of established government forces, and the European Potato Failure, which triggered mass starvation, migration, and civil unrest.
The uprisings were led by temporary coalitions of reformers, the middle classes (the bourgeoisie) and workers; however, the coalitions did not hold together for long. Many of the revolutions were quickly suppressed, as tens of thousands of people were killed, and many more were forced into exile. Significant lasting reforms included the abolition of serfdom in Austria and Hungary, the end of absolute monarchy in Denmark, and the introduction of representative democracy in the Netherlands. The revolutions were most important in France, the Netherlands, Italy, the Austrian Empire, and the states of the German Confederation that would make up the German Empire in the late 19th and early 20th century.
Chartist meeting on Kennington Common 10 April 1848
In Britain, while the middle classes had been pacified by their inclusion in the extension of the franchise in the Reform Act 1832, the consequential agitations, violence, and petitions of the Chartist movement came to a head with their peaceful petition to Parliament of 1848. The repeal in 1846 of the protectionist agricultural tariffs – called the “Corn Laws” – had defused some proletarian fervour.
In the Isle of Man, there were ongoing efforts to reform the self-elected House of Keys, but no revolution took place. Some of the reformers were encouraged by events in France in particular.
In the United States, opinions were polarized, with Democrats and reformers in favor, although they were distressed at the degree of violence involved. Opposition came from conservative elements, especially Whigs, southern slaveholders, orthodox Calvinists, and Catholics. About 4,000 German exiles arrived and some became fervent Republicans in the 1850s, such as Carl Schurz. Kossuth toured America and won great applause, but no volunteers or diplomatic or financial help.
Following rebellions in 1837 and 1838, 1848 in Canada saw the establishment of responsible government in Nova Scotia and The Canadas, the first such governments in the British Empire outside Great Britain. John Ralston Saul has argued that this development is tied to the revolutions in Europe, but described the Canadian approach to the revolutionary year of 1848 as “talking their way…out of the empire’s control system and into a new democratic model”, a stable democratic system which has lasted to the present day. Tory and Orange Order in Canada opposition to responsible government came to a head in riots triggered by the Rebellion Losses Bill in 1849. They succeeded in the burning of the Parliament Buildings in Montreal, but, unlike their counterrevolutionary counterparts in Europe, they were ultimately unsuccessful.
The center of the Ukrainian national movement was in Galicia, which is today divided between Ukraine and Poland. On 19 April 1848, a group of representatives led by the Greek Catholic clergy launched a petition to the Austrian Emperor. It expressed wishes that in those regions of Galicia where the Ruthenian (Ukrainian) population represented the majority, the Ukrainian language should be taught at schools and used to announce official decrees for the peasantry; local officials were expected to understand it and the Ruthenian clergy was to be equalized in their rights with the clergy of all other denominations.
On 2 May 1848, the Supreme Ruthenian (Ukrainian) Council was established. The council (1848–1851) was headed by the Greek-Catholic Bishop Gregory Yakhimovich and consisted of 30 permanent members. Its main goal was the administrative division of Galicia into Western (Polish) and Eastern (Ruthenian/Ukrainian) parts within the borders of the Habsburg Empire, and formation of a separate region with a political self-governance.
Main article: German revolutions of 1848–1849
Revolutionaries in Berlin in March 1848, waving the revolutionary flags
The “March Revolution” in the German states took place in the south and the west of Germany, with large popular assemblies and mass demonstrations. Led by well-educated students and intellectuals, they demanded German national unity, freedom of the press, and freedom of assembly. The uprisings were poorly coordinated, but had in common a rejection of traditional, autocratic political structures in the 39 independent states of the German Confederation. The middle-class and working-class components of the Revolution split, and in the end, the conservative aristocracy defeated it, forcing many liberal Forty-Eighters into exile.
The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was an association of 39 predominantly German-speaking sovereign states in Central Europe. It was created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 as a replacement of the former Holy Roman Empire, which had been dissolved in 1806.
Globalisation Un-Entangled. (A FOUND POEM, CIPHER OF GLOBALISM )
Which course to meet
who to set upon the bridge
For strength of Bulls Wall Street
of Bears & onion domes upon our chart
A heroes pride found in Britannia’s isles
Monks ´´sans humilite´´ fane ease
Like Pope we find our actors
´´All, all alike, find reason on their side´´
mais par impatience de souffrir
On the present discontents, Burke opined
Putin ,Trump and Farage set courses un-entangled
Junker , Merkel, Call for straight ahead.
Few are the partisans of departed tyranny
of Globalism or Nationalism which be the tyrant?
Yet passions are deceiving someone,
so near 50 years behindhand a hero fell.
“On this day, the day of March
in my opinion´´, is the end of the
United States of America
as the land of the free
and the home of the brave.”
Eliza with Rogerian inscrutability
hears the confession of the mal-contents
Globalisation Un-Entangled. (A FOUND POEM, CIPHER OF GLOBALISM )